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Items filtered by date: May 2014

Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:26

The Era of Slavery

The Era of Slavery


The topic that is to be covered in the assignment focuses on slavery in the western world. Two websites that discuss slavery have been selected. The first website is by history.com and analyzes the history of slavery in America. The website presents a detailed account of the first African slaves that arrived in North America. The website provides precise details such as the year when the first African slaves arrived in Virginia (the first stop for African slaves in North America). The website further provides intricate details on the factors that led to increased desire for slaves.


The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 is attributed to have led to the desire for slaves who would work in the cotton plantation. The website then proceeds and provides vivid details of the brutality that slaves encountered. The website further discusses the emergence of slave revolts in 1800 and how these revolts set the pace for the emancipation of slaves in 1863. The article is quite comprehensive; however, the details of slavery and emancipations end in the 19th century. The website fails to mention how elements of slavery persist in the modern society today. Considering that the website is up-to-date, it would have been expected that the writer mention how slavery continues to manifest itself in modern society.


The second website has been written by Danny Smith, for the guardian newspaper. Whereas this article analyzes the issue of slavery, it focuses on the 21st century occurrences of slavery. The first website, in contrast, analyzes slavery in the 18th and 19th century. The first website also focuses on Africans as slaves, whereas the second website focuses on the persistence of slavery in the 21st century. The discussion on slavery, in the 2nd website is based on recent findings of slaves that had been held captive for close to 30 years, in a London house.


Content of the website is based on the realization that slavery persists despite having being abolished approximately 180 years ago. Information in the second website is also detailed, though the perspective is different from that of the first website. The author of the second article begins by illustrating how slavery was the norm in the ancient days, in the first cities such as Mesopotamia. As early as 1400, African men and women were being captured by Portuguese as sold off as slaves in Portugal. Similar to the first website, the second website also indicates that efforts to end slavery came to fruition in 1833. The 2nd website introduces a new twist by demonstrating that slavery in plantation may have ended but slavery persists.


Slavery persists in the modern world in the form of debt bondage, slave labor, sex trafficking and domestic servitude. Overall, the article concludes by calling on societies to work together and fight modern slavery. The 2nd article does not provide an elaborate historical background of slavery in societies. The authors should have summarized the existence of slavery in the modern world. Similarly, the article fails to provide details on the emancipation of slavery. The website is also not detailed and specific with regard to dates and times when events occurred. The first website, however, is comprehensive on the dates and years historical events related to slavery occurred.


 Reference

1st website: History. Com. (2013) Slavery in America. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/slavery

2nd website: Smith, D. (2013). 180 years after abolition, why is slave trade booming? The guardian.Friday 22 November 2013


 

Published in History
Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:15

Adolf Hitler and the Final Solution

Adolf Hitler and the Final Solution


The final solution refers to the plan that the German Nazis adopted in an effort to eliminate all Jews living in Germany. To-date, it has never been clearly determined when Nazi leader Adolf Hitler made the ultimate decision to eliminate all Jews in Europe. Whereas most historians believe that the decision was made in mid 1941, there is increasing evidence that proves that the final solution was simply a declaration and the actual process of terminating all Jews began years before.German Nazi, Adolf Hitler never made a specific declaration, on a specific day to eliminate all Jews from German. Instead, he gave systematic orders and statements that gave his commanders the authority to adopt extreme measures to eliminate Jews.


The terminology “The final solution” was a euphemized way of declaring a permanent solution of eliminating all Jews through death. Hitler may not have directly participated in the murder of millions of Jews, but he gave suggestions and indications that proved he was familiar with the intended mass murder of Jews. In a 1939 speech to mark his 6th anniversary since he became the Nazi leader, Hitler declared that he was a prophet and declared the annihilation of the Jewish race if they plunge Europe into another world war.  Unfortunately, for the Jews World War II began shortly after, giving Nazis an excuse to eliminate all Jews (Shermer, 1994).


The Jews had already been suffering in Germany having been termed as an impure race by Hitler and his government. It is this despise that Hitler felt against Jews that translated to continue suffering of Jews in the Hands of Nazis. In fact, the order regarding the final solution was not a beginning of the holocaust and mass murder, but the end. Prior to the holocaust, hundreds of thousands of Jews had already been killed by Nazis. The final solution only saw the finalizing of mass murder towards Jews. It is also undeniable that Hitler was aware of the continued suffering of Jews in the hands of Nazis.


Hitler was the commander of the Nazis, and as the commander it is unlikely that Hitler was unaware of the mass murder that his people were doing (Shermer, 1994). Nazi commanders such as, Heinrich, Brandt and Kaltenbrunner engage in communication and exchange of transmission about the extermination of Jews; a clear indication that Jews we being killed en masse. Statements such as the 1933 statement where he defends his police and take responsibility for the killings is an indicator of his knowledge of the suffering of Jews. Diary entries by commander such as Goebbels further prove that the mass murder of Jew had already been planned and was already in progress.


In one of the diary entries, Goebbels indicates that they have decided to make a “clean sweep” against Jews.In conclusion, Adolf Hitler may have not physically written down a declaration permitting the murder of millions of Jews, through the Holocaust. However, actions of Hitler’s policemen and commanders indicate that he was aware of the suffering and mass murder of Jews. The official stand regarding the final decision may have been made officially in 1941, but the torture and mass murder had been ongoing years before the 1941 declaration.


 Reference

Shermer, M. (1994). Proving the Holocaust. Skeptic, Vol. 2, No. 4,


 

Published in History

Middle Range Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms


As a result of ethnic and religious diversity, nurses are required to care for patients from different cultural backgrounds (Pesut, 2009). To treat children, parental consent is required. However, there are occasions when parents may refuse to give consent the chosen intervention may contradict the family’s cultural or religious beliefs. Examples include Christian Scientists, who refuse consent for treatment because they believe that prayer is sufficient for healing.  Some parents are reluctant to allow immunization of their children. The scenarios are varied.


However, regardless of the form the refusal takes, unfamiliar situations occur leading to difficulties particularly when parents refuse options that hospital personnel presume to be the best course of treatment.  This leads to confusion on the part of the nurse as they are driven the respect for the will of the family while, at the same time, being an advocate for the child’s well-being.The purpose of this paper is to describe the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms, relating it to the practice of nursing.  A case study of a situation involving a family that is a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses, which refuses to grant permission for emergency blood transfusion for their child, will be used to demonstrate the application of this theory.


 Description of the Theory

The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms was designed in 1995 (Finnell & Jezewesky, 2007). Individuals perceive similar symptoms differently. The purpose of creating this theory was to facilitate interventions that prevent or lessen the effect of unpleasant symptoms. The focus of this theory is the desire to reduce the effect of unpleasant symptoms. However, the overall goal for nurses is the development of interventions for individuals and groups. Symptoms can be situational, observable, psychological, and physiological (McCaffrey, 2010).


These are factors that may act jointly or individually to create unpleasant symptoms. An example of a situation that can be addressed using this theory is extreme pain associated with early breastfeeding, which may impede a mother’s desire to continue breastfeeding (Kim, et al. 2011). The theory proposes that alternative factors that increase unpleasant symptoms are identified, and multiple interventions tried.For practicing nurses, the concepts and proposition of the theory may seem like common sense rather than theoretical knowledge (Pesut, 2009). However, unpleasant symptoms remain problematic in the delivery of health care solutions.


According to the theory, nurses should determine the possibility of the existence of multiple unpleasant symptoms. They should consider situations, emotions, experiences, and biophysical issues as the influencing factors. The main points, according to the theory, are that unpleasant symptoms are detrimental to recovery and patient care. Intensity levels, distress levels, timing, and quality of symptoms are variables that are measured in unpleasant symptoms. Other factors that affect symptoms include psychological, physiological, and situational factors. All these factors must be considered, in addressing unpleasant symptoms in patient care.


 Application of the Theory in Research

Theorists consider the theory of unpleasant symptoms a middle range-theory. In the words of Dyess (2011), middle range theories are sufficiently concrete to link t research with practice. The origin of this middle-range theory is traced to the development of two concepts: one regarding fatigue and the other regarding dyspnea. Dr. Linda Pugh and Audrey Gift combined the two concepts and found similarities between the two concepts. In 1997, Pugh, Gift, and Lenz collaborated to publish the concepts as an updated theory of unpleasant symptoms.


According to Dyess (2011), the dimensions of symptoms are defined by three categories of variables, which are psychological, physiological, and situational factors.  Psychological factors include knowledge of symptoms and mental state. Physiologic factors include energy levels, trauma, and function of body systems. Situational factors include environmental and social factors. The three components of the middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms are applied to public health decision making. Social and interactional activities are perceived as the body functions. The decline in aspects of cognitive performance, including problem solving and thinking is viewed as the result of symptoms.


 Application of the Theory in Practice

The case of a parent who refuses blood transfusion for a seriously ill child poses a big challenge to the practice of evidence-based nursing practice (Kim, et al., 2011). The dilemma must be handled with care and great sensitivity. First of all, it is important to avoid convincing the parent to agree to blood transfusion. This is because the nurse does not know the consequences of a parent giving consent for blood transfusion for the child. They may be excommunicated from the church and forced to leave friends and family. Refusal of blood donation is a principal tenet of Jehovah’s Witnesses. They perceive it as a covenant with God that cannot be broken. Breaking the covenant may have consequences that include losing eternal salvation and position in the community. Being shunned by others has also been observed with members who are believers of the faith. There is a possible that the children may survive.


However, he will reside in a home that his family may never visit again.An attempt should be made to perform treatment with non-blood products while consulting with the church’s liaison committee. However, there may be a time when the nurse needs to speak on behalf of the patient. Traditionally, physicians would refuse to treat patients whose parents refused blood transfusion. For the sake of the patient, the hospital administration can obtain a court order mandating a life-saving transfusion. Once the Child Protection Service and the court orders blood transfusion, the child is removed under the child’s control.  This is an amicable solution because the parent will not break up with the church. Both the parent and the child would not be ostracized from the Witness community.


 Justification

The determination of whether a decision that overrides the decision of parents is reached by applying the middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms (Pesut, 2009). Children are not independent in terms of decision making. Therefore, they can fall prey to cultural and religious decisions that can have an impact on the health of the child. For this reason, the nurse acts as an advocate for the child. It is the role of the nursing practitioner to analyze the situation of the child and determine the emergency status based on symptoms. It is fundamental to respect the decision of the family. This implies that the actions taken do not imply a contravention of the religious and cultural values, which carry penalties for non-conformance.


 Alternative Theory: Theory of Spiritual Well-Being in Illness

The theory of spiritual well-being in illness can be useful in guiding the practice of any nurse proving holistic health care services (Burkhart & Hogan, 2008). The services could include paying attention to the needs of the body, mind, and spirit. The theory of spiritual well-being is particularly important for nurses carrying for patients experiencing life-threatening, chronic, and terminal illnesses, as well as injuries and illnesses that affect the individual’s professional or personal goals. In these situations, patients normally struggle to find meaning their status of disability or illness. Irrespective of their religious affiliation, individuals strive to make sense of the conditions in which they find themselves. If they find this impossible, most patients seek to achieve acceptance and peace in the midst of their tribulations.


The middle-range theory of spiritual well-being in illness helps both practitioners and researchers working persons who are seriously ill or injured to evaluate the spiritual needs of the patients and institute appropriate spiritual care interventions.The nursing research literature indicates that middle-range theories emerged from a combination of research and practice and the work of others theorists (Pesut, 2009). Nurse theorists assert that middle-range theories may be deduced from conceptual frameworks, established clinical guidelines, or grand theories. The nursing theory of spiritual well-being in illness was derived from the nursing model conceived by Joyce Travelbee and other early conceptualizations (White, Peters, & Schism, 2011).


The central focus of the theory is finding meaning in illness. The model was based on perceiving the nurse’s role as that of assisting the patients to experience hope as a means of coping with suffering.According to this framework, illness is perceived as physical, emotional, and spiritual experiences that can be described as both subjective and objective.  The definition of suffering and illness depends on the symbolic meaning attached to these concepts by an individual. According to the teachings of Joyce Travelbee, a nurse practitioner must be ready to assist individuals and families to cope with illness and find meaning in their experiences. It is a difficult task for the professional nurse practitioner but must not be evaded.


 Justification

In line with the theory of well-being in illness, a variety of hypotheses can be derived to describe the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life (McCaffrey, 2010). For example, it can be proposed that there will be a significant relationship between the faith of a sick person and their perceived quality of life in suffering. Secondly, there is a significant relationship between their religious practices and their perceived quality of life in situations of suffering.


A third hypothesis can be stated that there is a significant relationship between the quality of life of persons experiencing disability or suffering. The rationale for using theory of spiritual well-being has to do with the gravity of the injury of the child. The parents are in a condition that is traumatizing. The theory guides the nursing professional to assist the family find meaning in the situation in which they are. This has to do with recovery from the shock resulting from the accident or the outcome of the surgical procedures.


 Summary

Nursing philosophy is fundamental to the evidence-based practice (Pesut, 2009). Nurses who care for children from families and communities that embrace extreme religious and cultural beliefs experience dilemma in their service delivery. For example, members of some religious groups do not accept blood transfusions for their patients. This is particularly a challenge for emergency cases such as the one discussed where blood transfusion was the only viable solution to saving the life of the child. Although Jehovah’s witnesses accept other modalities of hospital treatment, they object blood transfusions.


Culture and religion are important. However, there are times when the nurse practitioner is justified to follow the hospital administration’s directives to bend cultural or religious laws for the benefit of the child.It is fundamental that the nurse takes precautions not to cause commotions between the family members or between the family and the community or religion to which it belongs. Perhaps, taking a court order to effect a mandatory blood transfusion may serve the best interest of both the child and the parents. The relevant church will perceive the hospital and not the parents as responsible for going against the non-tolerance of blood transfusion. 


References

Agrimson, L.B. & Taft, L.B. (2008). “Spiritual Crisis: A concept analysis”. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(3): 454-461

Burkhart, N. & Hogan, L. (2008). “An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice”. Qualitative Health Research, 18(7): 928-938

Dyess, S.M. (2011). “Faith: A concept of analysis”. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(12): 2723-2731

Finnell, S.L. & Jezewesky. M. (2007). “Spirituality in Nursing and health related literature”. Journal of Holistic Health, 25(4): 252-262

Kim, et al. (2011). “Spirituality and psychological well-being”. Research in Nursing &Health, 34(2): 103-105

McCaffrey, R. (2010). “Doctor of Nursing Practice: Enhancing Professional Development”. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company

Pesut, B.N. (2009). “Ontologies of nursing in an age of spiritual pluralism: Closed or Open World View”, Nursing philosophy, 11: 15-23

White, M., Peters, R., & Schism, S. (2011), “Spirituality and Spiritual Self-Care: Expanding Self-Care Deficit Theory”, Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(1): 48-56


 

Published in Psychology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:05

United States v. Russell

United States v. Russell


Citation: 411U.S 423, 93S.CT. 1637, 36L. Ed. 2d 366 (1973)

Fact

Richard Russell the respondent did manufacture methamphetamine by use of a chemical that was supplied by a federal undercover agent. This undercover agent did provide a key ingredient for making the meth which was propanone, and it was needed so that to complete the manufacturing. The respondent was able to get the propanone without assistance from the agent; however he accepted the offer from the agent of getting the ingredient and in return provides him with half of the product. The respondent agreed that he would make the product without assistance from the agent; however, the conduct of the government should test so that to determine entrapment.


  Issue

The issue in this case was if the involvement of the police in intolerable degree, in commission of a crime, tends to violate the due process in order to render the crime not prosecutable.


 Decision

Using the defense of entrapment was excluded because the aim of the entrapment in the common law was to exclude prosecution whereby the government failed to observe the law. In this case, the government was found not to have violated any law because the defendant would have been able to receive the chemical without having the intervention from the agent. Supplying the legal component did not violate the fundamental fairness.


 Opinions

The opinions that were offered was that supplying the ingredient made US be actively participate in unlawful activity. The officer promoted the crime, and he entrapped the defendant. A rational way of entrapment was considered to focus on the agent’s conduct and ignore if the defendant was innocent. Therefore, the respondent was considered as entrapped.


 Reference

Entrapment: United States v Russell, 411 U.S. 423 (1973). Journal of Criminal law and criminology 64 (4)


 

Published in History

Regional Trade Agreements versus Global Trade Liberalization


 The world has become largely globalized, and the desire for trade liberalization has intensified.  Countries are engaging in regional trade agreements, as well as global trade liberalization endeavors so as to improve national welfare and have a positive impact on development. The paper takes analyzes regional trade agreements versus global trade liberalization with the intention of.Regional Trade Agreements (RTA) is reciprocal trade agreements between two or additional country partners. RTAs remove all barriers of trade and foreign investments that may have otherwise been hindering business processes across the involved countries.


RTA is beneficial to companies that are equal in terms of economic viability (Freund, & Ornelas, 2010). However, RTAs between countries that are unmatched, e.g. a rich and poor economy country means that the rich economy country may benefit more from the trade agreement than the poor country. When a poor country gets into a regional trade agreement with an economically stable country, the poor nation may be affected with some of the rules that the agreement may bring forth. For instance, the RTA may rule that countries should not use import tariffs.


Whereas such as rule may be beneficial for the rich country it may be detrimental for the poor country that needed to safeguard their emerging industries from being pushed out of the market through cheap imports (Moe-Lobeda & Spencer, 2009; Taifeng, 2009). It is preferable, therefore, for developing countries to unite and work together and have their strengths in numbers against decisions that developed countries may make. In most instances, developed countries will pass regulations that will favor them.Critics of RTA have argued that RTA does not necessarily improve the welfare of member states as dominant members may push for the removal or inclusion of tariffs that favor them.


For instance, dominant states in a RTA may push for the removal of tariffs that may subsequently lead to trade diversion as imports may shift away from efficient suppliers to nations receiving preferential treatment (Wilson, 2012). Such a move would result to inefficient production that may affect bloc non-members. RTA can also affect members through strategies such as price adjustments that may lead to consumer surplus (Zeng, 2010).Global trade liberalization is the removal of all trade barriers and practices that interfere with the free flow of goods and services across nations. Global trade liberalization ensures the removal of tariffs such as duties and export subsidies.


It also ensures that non-tariff barriers such as licenses and quotas are also eliminated (Urata, 2002). Global trade liberalization ascertains the global flow of goods, and services hence an essential driver of global economic growth and development. According to Bouet, (2006) global trade liberalization is expected to act positively on development and poverty reduction. Liberalization of trade is expected to improve agricultural prices, for instance, hence raise activity and payments in agriculture, in developing nations. Most developing nations depend on the agricultural sector in which trade distortions are high. Global trade liberalization is likely to lead to higher world agricultural prices thus benefits to developing nations.


Other industries such as textile and apparels are also bound to improve and give developing countries a comparative advantage. Critics, however, argue that global trade liberalization can lead to a shrink in government transfers due to the elimination of trade-related taxes. Liberalization can also affect terms of trade due to price adjustments. Price adjustments also have the potency of exposing nations to short-run risk arising from competition and reallocation of productive factors (Jones, 2006). 


Reference

 Bouet, A. (2006). How much will trade liberalization help the poor? International food policy research institute. Research brief No. 5

Freund, C. Ornelas, E. (2010). Regional trade agreements. Policy research working paper 5314. The world Bank development research group

Jones, E. (2006). Europe's market liberalization is a bad model for a global trade agenda. Journal Of European Public Policy13(6), 943-957. Doi: 10.1080/13501760600838714

Moe-Lobeda, C. D., & Spencer, D. T. (2009). Free Trade Agreements and the Neo-Liberal Economic Paradigm: Economic, Ecological, and Moral Consequences. Political Theology10(4), 685-716. Doi:10.1558/poth.v10i4.685

Taifeng, C. (2009). Regional trade agreements vs. multilateral trading system. NUPI working paper 762. Department of international economics

Urata, S. (2002). Globalization and the Growth in Free Trade Agreements. Asia-Pacific Review9(1), 20-32. Doi: 10.1080/13439000220141569

Wilson, J. D. (2012). Resource security: a new motivation for free trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific region. Pacific Review25(4), 429-453. Doi:10.1080/09512748.2012.685098

Zeng, K. (2010). Multilateral versus Bilateral and Regional Trade Liberalization: explaining China's pursuit of free trade agreements (FTAs). Journal of Contemporary China19(66), 635-652. Doi:10.1080/10670564.2010.485400


 

Published in Business Studies

Special Rights and Responsibilities for Individuals with Hearing Loss


Hearing loss is the most common form of impairment in the world. It is estimated that over 275 million people around the world have hearing loss (World Health Organization, 2012). Hearing affects a critical element in human development and human interaction. Thus, people with hearing loss are at high risk of being excluded from society. In many societies, deaf person are already excluded from participating in life activities by attitudinal and environmental barriers. 


A set of specific rights have been established in order to address and eliminate these barriers and enable deaf persons to fully participate in societal activities. The developmental conception of social welfare recognizes that some members of society need socially provided services in order to enhance their capacity to participate in society and maintain desirable standards of living (Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2012). The specific rights seek to address the welfare of deaf persons in order improve the capacity.


 Fundamental Rights

Fundamental human rights and freedoms apply to every person regardless of his physical status, sex, or backgrounds (Hauland & Allen, 2009). The rights include autonomy to make own decisions, right to participate fully in society, right to be treated with dignity, and freedom of expression. These are universal rights that need to apply to every person.


 Specific Rights

The social model of disability proposes that disability arises from interaction between impaired person and the environment and attitudinal barriers created by the societal (Shakespeare & Watson, 2002). Disability is not a function of the physical condition of the impaired person but rather a function of the social barriers that this person is exposed. These barriers include lack of respect for deaf people’s culture and linguistic identity, limited acceptance and use of sign language, and lack of recognition. These societal barriers hinder people with hearing loss from enjoy the basic and fundamental human rights hence, the need for specific rights and responsibilities. Specific rights and responsibilities are designed to address the disadvantages imposed by society on people with hearing loss.


 Right to Representation in Decision making Organs

One of the specific rights for people with hearing impairment is the right to be represented in key decision making organs such as legislative bodies, local authorizes, school boards and many others (Hauland & Allen, 2009). People with hearing loss have a right to autonomy. This implies that deaf persons should be given the space to make decisions and direct their own live. However, the autonomy of this group is undermines through political processes. In order to address this disadvantage, people with hearing impairments have a right to representation in legislative organs and key decision making institutions (UNESCO, 2013). This representation gives people with hearing loss the chance to influence policies and programmes that affect their interest.


 Acceptance of Deaf People as Part of Human Diversity

Deaf people have a right to be accepted and treated with dignity. In society, people accept that there are diverse groups of people. This includes males and females, members of different racial and ethnic groups, and members of different sexual orientation. However, people with hearing loss are often not considered as part of this diversity. Society has always treated people with hearing problems as subhuman (Allen, DeLuca & Napoli, 2007). They viewed that as incomplete person rather viewing them as unique culture.


This specific right seeks to restore dignity among people with hearing loss. It seeks to ensure that people with hearing loss are recognized as culture and part of human diversity. This right seeks to ensure that people with hearing impairment are accommodated in different areas, just as people from different genders and cultures are accommodated in different areas of life (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Thus, society has the responsibility of providing intermediaries and live assistance such as professional sign language interpreters, guides and readers, in order to facilitate access to building and other public utilities.


 Linguistic Human Rights

People with hearing loss also have the freedom to self expression and opinion (World Federal of Deaf, 2010). This includes the freedom to seek and receive information and express opinions. However, this freedom is undermined by lack of acceptance of sign language, Braille and other alternative forms of communication, as part of human diversity. This group experiences difficulties in accessing information and expressing their opinions because society does not recognize their language. This right is meant to address this challenge. It seeks to ensure key institutions such as government agencies, learning institutions, and communication firms recognize sign language and Braille as an important part of society (UNESCO, 2013).


It seeks to ensure that these communication elements are incorporated in the process of conveying information within society. The society has the responsibility of promoting the status of sign language in order to facilitate the acceptance of this language.  Today, there is growing acceptance of sign language in deaf education (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Many societies are adopting education approaches that use sign language as an essential part of communication. Sign language should also be available in all languages in order to promote usage of this language. For instance, in the United States, also need to incorporate Spanish language since there is a significant section of the population that speaks Spanish only.


 Right to Inclusive Education

Another fundamental right is education (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Countries have the responsibility of ensuring that persons with hearing loss are not excluded from the education system on the basis of their impairment. Thus, people with hearing loss have the right to be accommodating in the learning environment just like other students are accommodated. Inclusive education enables learning institutions to accommodate children with various forms of disability in the least restrictive environment.


In the United States, special education is implemented on a student-to-student basis, in what is known the Individualized Education Program (IEP) (The US Department of Education, 2000). In this program, stakeholders in the child education are assigned the responsibility of assessing the educational needs of a given child and develop a tailor-made plan for meeting these needs. The plan has measurable goals with guide the implementation process. This program is designed to ensure that persons with impairments are able to get meaningful outcomes out of the education system. The right to education is enshrined in the convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities.


 Right to Vocational Training

            In addition to inclusive basic education, deaf persons have a right to receive vocational training and long life learning (Hauland & Allen, 2009). Vocational training includes university and college level education. While there are no universities that have policies that prevent the enrollment of deaf persons, many universities do not provide services that accommodate the learning needs of deaf students. Many universities and other high learning institutions do not provide sign language interpreter or Braille (World Federation of Deaf, 2010). Lack of support services is a significant barrier to achievement of vocational education by deaf persons.


 Right to Work and Employment

Deaf persons have the right to participate in society. This includes the right to make economic and social contribution to society (World Federation of Deaf, 2010). They also have the right to earn a living and become independent. This specific right enables deaf person to realize the fundamental rights that have been mention above by ensuring that deaf persons are not discriminated during employment.


Article 27 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability stipulate that persons with disabilities should be given access to technical and vocation skills, placement services and continuing training (Hauland & Allen, 2009). In order to promote this right, society has a responsibility of ensuring that employment barriers are eliminated. These barriers include lack of resources to support disabled people within the work premise, lack of information and support for employers, and lack of person centered support for persons with hearing impairments.  


 Right to Access Services

Deaf persons have a right to access services such as transport, information, banking, legal services, government and other services (Hauland & Allen, 2009). A key element in the provision of quality services is the availability of sign language interpreters. Deaf persons rely heavily on sign language to communicate. This means that, without a sign language interpreter, there will be a significant gap in communication between the service provider and the deaf person.


This gap in communication can hinder accessibility to essential services by people with hearing impairments. Therefore, society has a responsibility of ensuring that essential service providers have sign language interpreters. Banks, mass media such television stations and public offices should have language interpreter in order to promote accessibility for deaf people. Many television stations have adopted the use of sign language and captioning in order to accommodate the needs of deaf persons.


 Societal Responsibilities

Language is the main element that distinguishes humans from other members of the animal kingdom (Allen and Napoli, 2007). It is also a significant part of human development since development takes place through social interaction. Hearing loss hinders the ability of individual to interact meaningfully with other members of society if proper measures are not put in place. In order to promote effective development, it is important to identify hearing loss early and address the linguistic needs of the child.Societal has a responsibility of ensuring that people with hearing impairment are able to access natural language.


This is achieved by ensuring that this group can access technologies that would assist them to interact with other members of society (Hauland & Allen, 2009). These technologies include hearing aids and Braille. The society also has a responsibility of employing special education teachers in order to support the inclusion of deaf persons into the education system. Training of special education teachers is a major priority since education has the potential of changing other aspects of the life of a deaf person. Universities also need to invest in services and infrastructure needed to promote learning among deaf persons.


 Members of society also have a responsibility for ensuring that people with hearing loss are accommodating into existing social structure. One of the responsibilities of other members of society is learning the deaf culture and language. People with hearing loss cannot communicate with other people, if other people do not understand sign language. This means that society must make an effort to make sign language part of day-to-day communication in order to accommodate deaf people. 


Another responsibility of society is to ensure that persons with hearing loss who can work are provided with personalized assistance (Hauland & Allen, 2009). The society should also ensure that those who cannot work are given support allowances and other services. The society should also enact policies that protect deaf people from discrimination at the workplace. Over half the countries that ratified the Convention on the Right for Persons with Disability have no laws that prohibit discrimination of persons with disabilities during employment.


 Conclusion

Hearing loss is the most prevalent for of impairment in the world (Word Health Organization, 2012). This impairment affects an important cognitive function thus affecting the development of an individual. Developmental problems among people with hearing loss are compounded further by negative attitude and environment that these people are exposed. In order to safeguard the welfare of deaf persons and promote their capacity to participate in society, specific rights are required. These rights ensure that the needs of deaf persons are accommodated in critical areas of life.    


 References

Allen, S. DeLuca, D. & Napoli, D. (2007). Societal Responsibility and Linguistic Rights. Journal of Research in Education. 17: 41- 53

Dolgoff, R. & Feldstein, D. (2012). Understanding Social Welfare: A Search for Social Justice. USA, Pearson Publisher

Hauland, H. & Allen, C. (2009). Deaf People and Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.wfdeaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Deaf-People-and-Human-Rights-Report.pdf

Shakespeare T. & Watson N. (2002). The Social Model of Disability. Journal of Research in Social Science and Disability. 2: 9 -28

The US Department of Education (2000). A Guide to the Individualized Education Program. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html

The World Health Organization (2012). Promoting Ear and Hearing Care through CBR. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/pbd/deafness/news/CBREarHearingCare.pdf

UNESCO (2013). Access for People with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/access-for-people-with-disabilities/

World Federal of Deaf (2010). Education Rights for Deaf Children. Retrieved from http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/policy_child_ed.pdf


 

Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 09:40

Application Letter

Application Letter


Chemicals play an important role in many Biochemical and Chemical processes, but there is the need to control, monitor and ensure proper use, to avoid potential threat to the environment and human lives. I am interested in undertaking further studies in chemistry at the master’s level so that I gain in-depth insight on the use of chemicals and also to have the right skills to teach the future generation about chemical components and their importance to our existence. Still researches on chemical toxicity have to be undertaken to broaden human understanding.


My main goal for choosing the chemistry program is that I will have a direct relation with the environment and human health. This is in line with my career goal of becoming a chemistry lecturers and further improving human health through extensive researchers on ways to regulate the use of chemicals. I believe that, through this institution, I will be a better person in enhancing knowledge on chemical components, and ensuring a toxic-free future.


I am interested in this program because, by the end of the learning period, I will be a t a better position in educating future students on potential physical, toxicology, environmental and reactivity of hazardous chemical substances. I believe that, through the Master Degree in Chemistry, I will have gained the knowledge and tools needed from the economic, scientific and regulatory point of view in managing chemicals risks responsibly, as per the worldwide chemic legislation.In order to attain my career goal I will have to focus in the short term activities, such as training, learning and developing related skills, and practices in the field of chemistry.


I have a Bachelor in Chemistry with a second class 5.00/4.50 PA level. I have taught chemistry in Saudi Arabia, which is an experience that propelled me to desire a master’s program in the U.s. I am hardworking, dynamic, purpose driven and adaptable. I also have good interactive and communication skills. I believe that the American universities have a positive international reputation that will help me practice my career of teaching chemistry at an international level and in particular to come back to Saudi to the future young people in this filed.


Reference

Petersons, M (2011) Graduate Programs in Engineering & Applied Sciences 2011.



Published in Education

Culture Shock among International Students


It is common for international students to experience culture shock during the initial periods of their stay in foreign countries. This is generally negative emotions associated with anxiety, insecurity and disorientation, usually brought about by unfamiliar environment. Various ideas have been generating concerning how to manage culture shock. However, these traditional ideas have their limitation. This paper proposes a creative solution to solving the culture shock problem that entails keeping an open mind and living each day at a time.  


 Culture shock is usually brought about by several factors. One of these factors is the absence of values, practices, norms and behaviors that a person was used in the home countries. Different countries have different cultural settings. Therefore, people in different countries are bound to have differences in values, norms and behaviors. A person is likely to experiences culture shock when the culture of the destination country differs significantly from the culture of the home country. This is mainly because the student will try to compare home practices and practices with the destination country thus amplifying the differences.


 Having an open mind is the best approach of minimizing culture shock. Keeping an open mind will enable the student to accept and appreciate everything he encounters in the destination country (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010). It will enable the student to appreciate new experiences without passing judgment about these experiences. Keeping an open mind will enable the student to become an objective observer rather than interpret the new experiences using the values of the home country. Keeping an open mind will also enable the student to understand the local people and their behaviors (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010). The student will be in a position to understand and appreciate the local culture when they remain objective.   


 Another factor that leads to culture shock is anticipation. Marx (2001), in her book Breaking through Culture Shock, proposed that students should try to anticipation local culture as a strategy for minimizing culture shock. However, anticipation can be a significant cause of culture shock. This is because, in most cases, students get experiences that are different from what they had anticipated once they arrive in the destination country. This is mainly as a result of basing their anticipation on inaccurate information and stereotypes. Inconsistencies between what the students had prepared to experience and their actually experiences become a significant source of anxiety and discomfort.


 This paper recommends that instead of anticipating local cultures students should go to their destination country and live each day at a time. They should discover new experiences offered by the destination country as these experiences take place. Going into a foreign country with an open mind will minimize expectations, therefore, avoiding disappointments when expectations are met (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010). Having an open mind will also enable the student to appreciate the new environment.Proponents of traditions solutions may disapprove this creative solution by arguing that keeping an open mind will discourage students from preparing themselves for the new life and experiences. However, this is contrary to what is advocated in this proposed solution. This paper does not suggest that students should not find information about the destination country. It is important to explore basic information such as weather, cost of living, security information and others.


However, this solution discourages students from attempting to anticipate destination cultures and experiences since this leads to the creation of inaccurate and unrealistic expectations. This leads to disappointment when these expectations are not met.In conclusion, culture shock is a common problem among international students. Many students experience anxiety, disorientation and insecurity when they go to unfamiliar environments. Traditional sources recommend solutions such as attempting to anticipate destination culture. However, this paper proposes that the best strategy for dealing with culture shock is to keep an open mind and live each day at a time.


References

Maddux, W. Adam H. & Galinsky, A. (2010). When in Rome, Learn Why Romans do what they Do. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 36 (6): 731- 741

Marx, E. (2001). Breaking through Culture Shock. USA. Nicholas Brealey Publishing


 

Published in Education
Saturday, 24 May 2014 09:34

The Era of Slavery

The Era of Slavery


The topic that is to be covered in the assignment focuses on slavery in the western world. Two websites that discuss slavery have been selected. The first website is by history.com and analyzes the history of slavery in America. The website presents a detailed account of the first African slaves that arrived in North America. The website provides precise details such as the year when the first African slaves arrived in Virginia (the first stop for African slaves in North America).


The website further provides intricate details on the factors that led to increased desire for slaves. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 is attributed to have led to the desire for slaves who would work in the cotton plantation. The website then proceeds and provides vivid details of the brutality that slaves encountered. The website further discusses the emergence of slave revolts in 1800 and how these revolts set the pace for the emancipation of slaves in 1863. The article is quite comprehensive; however, the details of slavery and emancipations end in the 19th century. The website fails to mention how elements of slavery persist in the modern society today.


Considering that the website is up-to-date, it would have been expected that the writer mention how slavery continues to manifest itself in modern society.The second website has been written by Danny Smith, for the guardian newspaper. Whereas this article analyzes the issue of slavery, it focuses on the 21st century occurrences of slavery. The first website, in contrast, analyzes slavery in the 18th and 19th century. The first website also focuses on Africans as slaves, whereas the second website focuses on the persistence of slavery in the 21st century. The discussion on slavery, in the 2nd website is based on recent findings of slaves that had been held captive for close to 30 years, in a London house.


Content of the website is based on the realization that slavery persists despite having being abolished approximately 180 years ago. Information in the second website is also detailed, though the perspective is different from that of the first website. The author of the second article begins by illustrating how slavery was the norm in the ancient days, in the first cities such as Mesopotamia. As early as 1400, African men and women were being captured by Portuguese as sold off as slaves in Portugal. Similar to the first website, the second website also indicates that efforts to end slavery came to fruition in 1833. The 2nd website introduces a new twist by demonstrating that slavery in plantation may have ended but slavery persists.


Slavery persists in the modern world in the form of debt bondage, slave labor, sex trafficking and domestic servitude. Overall, the article concludes by calling on societies to work together and fight modern slavery. The 2nd article does not provide an elaborate historical background of slavery in societies. The authors should have summarized the existence of slavery in the modern world. Similarly, the article fails to provide details on the emancipation of slavery. The website is also not detailed and specific with regard to dates and times when events occurred. The first website, however, is comprehensive on the dates and years historical events related to slavery occurred.


 Reference

1st website: History. Com. (2013) Slavery in America. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/slavery

2nd website: Smith, D. (2013). 180 years after abolition, why is slave trade booming? The guardian.Friday 22 November 2013


 

Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 09:29

Adolf Hitler and the Final Solution

Adolf Hitler and the Final Solution


 The final solution refers to the plan that the German Nazis adopted in an effort to eliminate all Jews living in Germany. To-date, it has never been clearly determined when Nazi leader Adolf Hitler made the ultimate decision to eliminate all Jews in Europe. Whereas most historians believe that the decision was made in mid 1941, there is increasing evidence that proves that the final solution was simply a declaration and the actual process of terminating all Jews began years before.German Nazi, Adolf Hitler never made a specific declaration, on a specific day to eliminate all Jews from German.


Instead, he gave systematic orders and statements that gave his commanders the authority to adopt extreme measures to eliminate Jews. The terminology “The final solution” was a euphemized way of declaring a permanent solution of eliminating all Jews through death. Hitler may not have directly participated in the murder of millions of Jews, but he gave suggestions and indications that proved he was familiar with the intended mass murder of Jews.


In a 1939 speech to mark his 6th anniversary since he became the Nazi leader, Hitler declared that he was a prophet and declared the annihilation of the Jewish race if they plunge Europe into another world war.  Unfortunately, for the Jews World War II began shortly after, giving Nazis an excuse to eliminate all Jews (Shermer, 1994).The Jews had already been suffering in Germany having been termed as an impure race by Hitler and his government. It is this despise that Hitler felt against Jews that translated to continue suffering of Jews in the Hands of Nazis. In fact, the order regarding the final solution was not a beginning of the holocaust and mass murder, but the end. Prior to the holocaust, hundreds of thousands of Jews had already been killed by Nazis.


The final solution only saw the finalizing of mass murder towards Jews. It is also undeniable that Hitler was aware of the continued suffering of Jews in the hands of Nazis. Hitler was the commander of the Nazis, and as the commander it is unlikely that Hitler was unaware of the mass murder that his people were doing (Shermer, 1994). Nazi commanders such as, Heinrich, Brandt and Kaltenbrunner engage in communication and exchange of transmission about the extermination of Jews; a clear indication that Jews we being killed en masse. Statements such as the 1933 statement where he defends his police and take responsibility for the killings is an indicator of his knowledge of the suffering of Jews.


Diary entries by commander such as Goebbels further prove that the mass murder of Jew had already been planned and was already in progress. In one of the diary entries, Goebbels indicates that they have decided to make a “clean sweep” against Jews.In conclusion, Adolf Hitler may have not physically written down a declaration permitting the murder of millions of Jews, through the Holocaust. However, actions of Hitler’s policemen and commanders indicate that he was aware of the suffering and mass murder of Jews. The official stand regarding the final decision may have been made officially in 1941, but the torture and mass murder had been ongoing years before the 1941 declaration.


 Reference

Shermer, M. (1994). Proving the Holocaust. Skeptic, Vol. 2, No. 4,


 

Published in History
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