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Items filtered by date: May 2014

Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:44

Women Representation in Art

Women Representation in Art

Art has been used to address numerous issues across different societies around the world. The representation of the female body is a notable aspect that has been used extensively within the world’s art system. This was highly notable in Latin America especially in the period culminating into the post-revolutionary era. This occurred during the early decades of the 1900s. Mexico can be used as an effective example to showcase how the female body was represented in artistic imagery. Within this period in history, exceptional art was used by numerous artists to question how the woman’s body was used in different realms of the society.

In view of the works of leading artists such as Tina and Edward Weston, the woman’s body was extremely misrepresented across the Latin American society. While traditional attributes are notable in the numerous artistic images of this period, these images have been extremely influential even in the modern society. The study of body art can help immensely in terms of addressing the numerous themes integrated into the artistic images. Additionally, the study of body art can facilitate for the dissection of the different themes represented by artists in the different images. These perspectives have been addressed in this essay.


The first image within the framework of this analysis has been developed by Edward Weston. Titled the “Portrait of Olin”, this image provides numerous insights into how the woman’s body was represented in artistic platforms during the early 1900s in Latin America (Mulvey, c. 1923-26).The image can be evaluated on the basis of numerous perspectives. Firstly, the female body has been depicted in this image as a tool. The eyes of the woman in this image can tell that she is somehow anxious or displeased about an issue (Pilcher 89). In essence, it is highly likely that the artist intended to exemplify how women were not recognized accordingly within the traditional Mexican society especially in the early 1900s.


Another vital image within the framework of this analysis is the “Pregnant woman carrying a child” (Mulvey, Fig. 7). This image has been developed by Tina, and it underlines the excellent insights into the artistic impression the women’s body. This image helps in terms of emphasizing the issue of representation of the female body in art (Modotti, 71). In the traditional society in Latin America, women were more or less treated like second-class citizens. This is a challenge that was extensively rampant in Mexico. As one of the biggest countries in this region (Weston, 92),Mexico is an excellent representation of the entire society of Latin America. Women were not integrated into influential positions in the society. This is an aspect that has possibly caused Edward Weston and Tina to depict the female body in a unique way. It is notable that the two artists have represented the women in a scanty manner.

This is an aspect that shows the social standing of women in Latin America. This attribute can be seen as a challenge that faced the Mexican women during the beginning of the 1900s. Another notable aspect within the framework of both images is that women have been depicted as child-bearing tools (Harris 105). This is highly notable in Toni Modotti’s artistic image. In view of the artistic impression of this image, a woman has been depicted carrying a child. This is an indicator of how women were primarily used to bear children, and hence their place was domestic seclusion. Additionally, this can be exemplified as an attribute that accentuates the dominance of men across the entire society in Latin America.


While both images have been developed by different artists, there are numerous striking attributes that are characteristically similar. Firstly, both images are excellent indicators of how women were treated unfairly across the society (Weston, 61). In Weston’s image, the fact that the woman has been depicted as being upside down is a deliberate strategy by the artist to showcase the low status of women in Latin America during the early 1900s. It is also fundamentally pertinent to evaluate the various ideas communicated by both images. One of the notable ideas in both images is that there was selective oppression in the traditional Mexican society and the entire Latin American region at large. Another vital idea depicted in the images pertains to the association of women with domestic responsibilities (Weston, 21). In both images, the artists have underlined how women in the Latin American society were entrusted with domestic responsibilities and not senior leadership positions.


The analytical framework of this essay is extremely insightful in terms of the representation of the women body in Mexico and the Latin American society at large. There are various ways in which this society oppressed women including confinement to domestic responsibilities. Both Toni and Edward Weston’s images were developed during the early years of the 1900s. This is an aspect that underlines that both artists had excellent insights into the challenge of women suppression in the Mexican society.


Harris, Jonathan. Art in modern culture, HarperCollins Canada, Limited, 1992

Modotti, Tina. Frida Kahlo and Tina Modotti, White-chapel Art Gallery, 1982

Pilcher, Jeffrey. The human tradition in Mexico, Littlefield Publications, 2003

Weston Edward. Portraits, Aperture, 1995

Weston, Edward. Edward Weston portraits, Aperture, 1995


Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:41

Technology in Society

Technology in Society

Robert Sawyer presents an article on Technofetishized TV in which he demonstrates how technologies have taken over as the mean of finding justice. Sawyer analyzes investigative series such as CSI and Bones to demonstrate how technology is being used to pursue justice. Science fiction series demonstrate how technologies are crucial in finding reliable leads and conclusive findings. Without technology, it would be impossible to get conclusive results as they are numerous factors that may hinder this. First man is prone to error as he is human. There is also the risk that he can be affected emotionally or psychologically hence unable to make conclusive investigations (Sawyer, 2007).

The use of technologies guarantees accurate results with no chance of errors. Similarly, technologies are not affected by emotions. The main theme of this article is that technology is the way forward in societies that desire for continued survival. The article demonstrates the reliability of technologies in finding truths and seeking justice in society.Technology simplifies tasks and guarantees accuracy of results. This is depicted in investigative series such as bones in which investigator use technology to   reconstruct the faces of murder victims. This is a task that can be done by hand; however, it would take time and results would not be very accurate.

Technology allows for fast and accurate reconstruction. Technologies also guarantee objective results that are not affected by external factors such as emotions. For instance, investigations conducted by emotional infallible humans are prone to errors and subjectivity. Technologies are infallible and yield productive findings (Sawyer, 2007). Technology as used in investigative procedures guarantees justice prevails as the information yielded through technologies is factual and truth.


Sawyer, R. (2007). Technofetishized TV: CSI, Bones and Regenesis as science fiction television. Retrieved from http://flowtv.org/2007/11/technofetishized-tv-csi-bones-and-regenisis-as-science-fiction-television/


Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:35

Science Fiction

Science Fiction

Question One

The “hard work” music montage strives to demonstrate to viewers the high technological devices used to investigate a murder or an illness. The music montage does not focus on the characters in a scene, but the equipment that characters are using so as to resolve a problem. Viewers get an opportunity to have an up close of the technologies in use as directors intentionally eliminate the characters using this equipment. The elimination of humans in these music video montages ensures that viewers focus on the equipment only.

 Question Two

In addition to hard work music montages strive to demonstrate how the truth cannot remain hidden with the use of technology.  Technology is thus given some sort of authority over the humans. In the series Bones, Angela has the ability of reconstructing faces of murder victims, but instead of using these skills, she uses digital technology as it yields accurate results.

Question Three

The music montage stands apart from the dialogue scenes like a separate music video

 Question Four

C. The forensic science shows rely on science and technology to find the truth rather that emotional and fallible humanity

A. The bodies of technicians are covered in lab coats so as not to distract viewers from the science equipment


Retrieved from http://flowtv.org/2007/11/technofetishized-tv-csi-bones-and-regenisis-as-science-fiction-television/


Published in Social Sciences
Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:31

Authority, Structure, and Organization

Authority, Structure, and Organization

The board of directors has the responsibility of ensuring that each part of the plan is implemented. However, the board’s role is more or less to act as a oversight body. The executive leadership is mandated with the task of decision making and providing guidance to other role-players in the implementation framework of the plan. The quality improvement committee will ensure that the relevant standards of accreditation are met during all stages of the implementation process (Block, 2006). The medical staff members are vital in terms of making technical contributions to the plan especially in terms of enhancing treatment outcomes. The department staff and middle management are tasked with the mandate of facilitating the implementation process in terms of fulfilling the different subordinate roles.


The outcomes of the plan are communicated to the executive leadership. In contrast, it is the role of medical staff and the quality improvement committee to communicate the outcomes. On their part, the executive leadership reports to the board (Ginter, 2013). This hierarchical framework is vital in terms of boosting the efficiency of the entire communication process. The medical staff has the responsibility of facilitating for data collection, and hence the compilation of reports in view of the findings.


Communication is among the most essential components of the implementation framework of any plan. When the standards of communication are highly effective, excellent outcomes are obtained. In contrast, the efficiency of the plan’s implementation is put into disarray when the framework of communication is ineffective. These attributes underline the essential role of educating the different staff members about the plan. They will be issued with written communication that provides adequate explanations of their respective tasks (Hansten, 2008).  This will ensure that the relevant standards of clarity are attained. In addition to written communication, the use of electronic communication will also be vital. This involves platforms such as emails and slides.

 Annual Evaluation

Evaluation is massively essential in terms of ensuring that the projected goals of a plan are attained. This exemplifies the significance of evaluating the pertinent elements of the plan that will cater for evaluation. The first aspect of evaluation involves the patient outcomes. Improvements in the quality of outcomes will show that the plan is highly effective. In contrast, poor quality of outcomes will highlight the plan’s inefficiency (Hernandez, 2009). The accuracy standards of data collection will also be essential elements for the evaluative framework. Minimal accuracy or errors will highlight the plan’s inefficiency. In contrast, the absence of errors in data collection will be excellent indicators of the plan’s efficacy. In order to monitor and implement changes, the evaluation will be done continuously on monthly basis. This will help in terms of early detection of implementation challenges.

 External Entities

The decision-making process in an organization is strongly influenced by different external entities. Such influence can be exemplified in various ways. Firstly, professional interest groups are influential in terms of ensuring that an organization complies with the stipulated professional standards. Such groups can pressurize an organization if its framework of decision making is not compliant with the set standards. These groups are also influential in that they agitate for the involvement of employees in decision making (Ogilvie, 2010). Government agencies are also immensely influential in an organization’s decision making process. These agencies act as regulators. They require an organization’s decision making process to be consistent with the stipulated legal guidelines. Accrediting bodies are influential in that the organization must comply with the specified regulatory framework.


Block, D. J. (2006). Health care outcomes management, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning

Ginter, P. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Hansten, R. (2008). Relationship and result oriented health care, Port Ludlow, WA: Lulu

Hernandez, S. (2009). Strategic human resource management in health services, Mason,    OH: South-Western

Ogilvie, L. (2010). Strategic planning for nurses, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning


Published in Management
Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:27

Regulatory and Accreditation Standards

Regulatory and Accreditation Standards

In an emergency facility, there are various regulatory and accreditation standards that facilitate for compliance. The first aspect of accreditation is the maintenance of exceptional standards of hygiene. During the walk-through described in the case study, it was notable that hygiene was a critical issue that was not properly addressed by the various leaders in this emergency unit. For instance, the restroom was so dirty that even the family member could barely use it. The deplorable standards of hygiene in this facility are also exemplified by the absence of hangers and hooks for patient’s clothes. While these issues might appear simple, they are massively vital in terms of ensuring the relevant standards of accreditation are maintained in the hospital.

In addition to hygiene, accuracy of information is another crucial aspect within the framework of regulations and accreditation (Testi, 2012). A health care organization cannot be accredited if there are numerous inaccuracies in its systems. In the hospital described in the case study, there are inadequate standards of accuracy as exemplified by the information provided to the patient after calling the emergency room. Emphasis on nursing competence is also massively essential within the framework of accreditation and regulatory standards. The health care professionals in a hospital or clinical unit must be highly proficient in order to bolster the quality of treatment.

 Strategies used to meet the standards

In order to be accredited, it is fundamentally pertinent for health care organizations to use the relevant standards. One of the best strategies involves an educational program for clinicians and physicians. These are important role-players in the treatment plan of any patient. They must be highly competent in order to address the patient’s problem with optimum efficiency (Edwards, 2009). In the hospital described in the case study, written directions were issued across all departments.

This strategy was aimed at promoting the knowledge-base of all staff members in line with the relevant standards of accreditation. The introduction of hygienic standards was another strategy used in the attainment of accreditation. This was in response to the identified flaws within the framework of the hospital’s hygienic standards. In view of this intervention, a problem-solution framework is an essential strategy that caters for the attainment of accreditation in health care. Another notable strategy is the enhancement of the accuracy standards of information provided to patients. For instance, this hospital ensured that the details provided in the signage were accurate and hence helpful to patients.

 Appropriateness of the Strategies

In view of the circumstances described in the case study, the strategies were appropriate. There are various perspectives that underline the appropriateness of these strategies. Firstly, the head nurse and the physician had to respond immediately to the deplorable standards of hygiene and accuracy in the information platforms. These problems are massively undesirable in terms of patient outcomes and quality of treatment (Chapman, 2003). The head nurse was thus obliged to develop an immediate intervention for the problem. The second aspect that justifies the effectiveness of these strategies is the issue of resources. The head nurse and the physician made the decisions on the basis of the available resources. In such circumstances, the evaluation of resource availability is a pertinent aspect that bolsters the efficiency of decision-making. Emphasis on the competence of staff was also an essential strategy because it helps in bolstering the patient outcomes.


Chapman, G. B. (2003). Decision making in health care, Cambridge: Cambridge    University Press

Edwards, A. (2009). Shared decision making in health care, Oxford: Oxford University    Press

Testi, A. (2012). Advanced decision making methods, New York, NY: Springer


Published in Management

Brokeback Mountain And Homosexual Stereotypes

            The Americans have long held images of what a homosexual man looks likes and act.  These assumptions and images of a homosexual man are based on stereotype.  The impression of a gay has many implications such as womanliness, a lazy wrist, a lisp, a seductive arrogance, anal sex, AIDS and over sexed.  Americans have this idea of nurture and not nature that gays and agents of socialization such as media carry this image to the population.   This conception of gay men is aggravated by stereotypes of not having children, no marriage and no lasting relationship.

 The American people like to generalize people into categories or classifying individuals into exclusive groups, which homosexuals and gays could be placed, as well as cowboys.  The success of Brokeback signifies the efforts of the mainstream homosexuality in the American media (Keller & Jones, 2008) In the movie, Ange Lee took all the typical American heterosexual cowboys that grazes cattle, ropes and rides horses in the wild hill countryside, where meals are cooked over open fires and cowboys are kicked back against saddles with a harmonica, playing “Home on The Range” and complicates it by making tow cowboys fall in love and have a sexual association.

 According to, tow overriding cultural stereotypes of gay emerged over a century ago.  First, medical literature, in defining homosexuality, initiated the gender of gender inversion i.e. gay men are women trapped in men’s bodies. Second, the highly publicized Oscar Wilde trials engrained the notion of all gay men as effete, delicate, and effeminate.  Rooted in these stereotypes, the history of the cinema has presented gay men as “pansies” and “sissies”, and, as is all too clear, “nobody likes a sissy.” Some critics believe that Brokeback mountain is simply a story of love and physical affection between two lonely men that would elicit the same relationship between any two people in similar circumstances, and, therefore, not a picture protesting homophobia.

 However, other critics argues that the nature of the two cowboys relationship reflects a basic human one between two people who were not ostensibly gay and who were not seeking a gay affair, made it universal and more powerful homophobic bigotry.  However, the movie shatter stereotypes about gay men and relationships and highlight homophobia.  Brokeback Mountain, with its gay sexuality, depicts traditional masculinity associated with male in a heterosexual relationship.  Ennis is presented as a man eager to construct and exemplify familiar manhood.  He is physically adept, hardworking, verbally silent, responsible, and an ethical western man. Jack is presented as a man still in ambivalences produced by trying to match his father’s manhood, which is represented by ownership, dominance, and rodeo success.

Two rugged young men meet while working together as cowboys. Reluctantly and much to their dismay, having been raised in a straight society with the standard stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes toward gays, they fall in love.  In one of the movie scenes, one of the men tells the other when he was a child he heard about older men living together who were beaten to death. The boy’s father told him “this is what happens if you are like that.” The discovery of their gay sexuality at first is traumatic for the two cowboys, then frightening, but nonetheless overwhelming.  The summer jobs end and the two cowboys develop separate lives, marry and raise families.

However, they still look forward to their yearly “fishing” trips together where they renew their love.  Their relationship remains a secret, although one of their views becomes aware, making a non-living marriage worse (Hilliard, 2009).  The sexual relationship is presented in forms that emphasize the masculine.  When they had sex for the first time, it takes a hyper-masculine form, unlike the traditional gay romance.  Despite of their desires, Jack and Ennis have internalized their culture’s most lasting prejudices about homosexuality and homosexuals. Regardless of the fact the two have long lasting passion for each other, they did not modify their claims that they are “not queers.” They are hesitant to name their relationship love and they call it a “thing” that grabs and hold of them.  The scene depicts Ennis’s internalized homophobia.

             The gay male sexuality in the film seems to spring directly from an inborn aggression and competitive instinct.  It can be noted as a natural corollary to male horseplay, the violent, almost primitive, creasing together of two male bodies.  Brokeback represents this natural sexuality through attractive, accessible, and masculine actors, who portrayal included, not only kissing, but also a scene of anal sex.  This type of ma le sexuality gave rise to an intense homophobia.As Ebert’s concluded that Brokeback Mountain has been described as “a  gay cowboy movie,” which is a cruel simplification. It is a story of a time and place where two men are forced to deny the only great passion either one will ever feel.


Keller R. & Jones G Brokeback Mountain: Masculinity and manhood.  Retrieved from http://pcasacas.org/ on 8/11/2013 (2008).

Hilliard L. Hollywood speaks out: pictures that dared to protest real world issues. 2009; 5

Benjamin et al. Hollywood’s exploited. Public pedagogy, corporate movies, and cultural crisis. Macmillan Publisher, New York. 2010; 12-117

Robert Hilliard. Hollywood speaks out. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, USA. 2009; 254-259


Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:07

My Last New Year Festival

My Last New Year Festival

 It was a cool, breezy evening. You could see the excitement in everyone’s face. Houses along the street were sparkling clean, with windows and door decorated with New Year painting. The spirit of New Year celebration was slowly creeping-in. The Chinese New Year is the most celebrated event across China. Generally, New Year celebration activities begin two days before the start of the New Year with cleaning of houses. It is a traditional belief that sweeping the houses clean takes away bad luck and bring good-fortune in the fourth-coming year. Walking down the street, you could tell that all our neighbors take this belief seriously. Every backyard was neatly kempt while some of the houses appeared to have been freshly painted.

On arrival to our home, I found my family had already set up the kumquat tree. New celebration cannot be complete without this tree. The tree symbolizes good luck and abundance of wealth. The tree was decorated with paper cuttings, and so were the walls of the house. Lantern was also hanged on the kumquat tree, door and walls. The house looked marvelous with all these decorations. The atmosphere with the house was also jovial due to the arrival of family members from other parts of the country. The New Year event is viewed as a chance for family members who live apart to reunite and celebrate together.I was particularly excited to see my cousin, Chang. She was elegantly dressed in a charming, short, black, Chinese cheongsam dress that presented a blend of Chinese traditional fashion and western fashion.

Her long, black hair was held back revealing her finely made-up face. She looked absolutely stunning. It was long since we had meant and so I walked towards her, and we chatted for a while. Meanwhile, my sister and mother were busy in the kitchen preparing dinner. Family dinner is the first event that marks the beginning of the New Year celebrations. This is the most important dinner of the year and so my mother and sister wanted to make sure that everyone enjoyed. A delicious smell of rice and chicken came out of the kitchen giving me spans of hunger.Visitors were still streaming into our home, and I had not gotten ready for the night’s event. I dashed into the bathroom and took a quick warm shower. It was time to dress up for the occasion. Every at the event was looking fabulous, and I could be left behind.

I knew exactly what to wear. I took out my jean trouser, casual t-shirt and special hooded jacket. I felt confident in these attires. When I came out of my bedroom, I found everybody seated in the dining room ready for dinner. My mother and sister were preparing to serve the dishes aided by the professional cook. We are sat around the table waiting for the meal.The smell of the fish and dumplings was mouth watering. It is a tradition in Chinese community to eat certain dishes such as fish during the New Year celebrations. The fish was served with glutinous rice cake and spring rolls. Spring rolls are also popular dishes among Chinese people. The spring rolls comprised of vegetables and pork. There was also a mix of different fruits, which added to the attractiveness of the meal.

Everybody was hungry, and we all dug into the meal as soon as everybody was seated. It was a joyous occasion to share a meal with family members whom you had seen in a long time. The family meal provided us with an opportunity to attract and share our experiences. It was a good opportunity to bond with distant family members. After the meal, people were moving around the house holding conversations.A few minutes before midnight, the sky was filled with blinding lights of the fireworks from all over the city. The scene was spectacular. The scene of light coupled with the thunderous sounds of fireworks bursting into the sky was electrifying. You could also hear people shouting in celebrations.

The fireworks ceremony has been practiced among Chinese communities for generation. Chinese believe that the fireworks drive away evil from their communities. This practice is founded on a mythical story of a beast known as the “year”. According to the myth, the “year” would come out during the New Year’s Eve to harm animals, people and properties. Hence, people have to stay awake the entire and launch fireworks so as to fend off the beast. Contrary to the impression created by the myth, the night was filled with joy and excitement. The fireworks just marked the beginning of a long and eventful night, and my cousin and I were not willing to miss any part of these celebrations.

We matched towards the city square where there was a public celebration. There were many people of the treats also matching towards the city square. Night time looked like day time. It was in the middle of the night, but the streets were filled with people. We reached the city square in time to watch dragon ceremony. The dragon ceremony is also a popular part of the New Year celebration. In the Chinese culture, the dragon is a symbol of good luck, fertility, wisdom, good fortune and prosperity. The Chinese people always think of themselves as the descendants of the mythical dragon. Thus, the dragon dance is often a highlight of all New Year celebrations.

During this night, the dragon dance was performed at the stage erected at the city square. The lead dancer lifted, thrust, dipped and swept the head of the gigantic, animated dragon.  The dragon moved in a wave-like pattern sending cheers into the crowd. Thousands of people had gathered to watch the dragon dance. The people at the square could not hide their excitement. I was also extremely excited. It was a proud and emotional experience for me, knowing that I was planning to travel out of the country. The dragon dance gave me a great sense of identity and pride in my Chinese root.My cousin and I walked home in readiness for the last ceremony of the New Year’s celebration.

This ceremony is known as the red envelopes. In the red envelopes ceremony, working adults would give red envelopes that were filled with money to young children, jobless adults and the old. The red color of the envelope represents happiness, abundance, and good fortune in the Chinese culture. I was excited to receive my red envelopes full of money. This ceremony also elicited an emotional moment from me. While I was a recipient of the red envelope in this last ceremony, I now a will be I donor of the envelope when I return home for my next celebrations. This last new festival was the most important for me. It reminds me of my culture and origin even when I am thousands of miles away from home.


Published in Sociology
Saturday, 24 May 2014 15:02

Neapolitan Patrons

Neapolitan Patrons

Dosio and his Neapolitan patrons adapted the rich claims of the magnificent act to the specific political, religious and demographic conditions of the late 16th century. The cult of ruins had found an expression in poetry at the time the work of Dosio was documented.  Around 1500, ruins become a subject of the neo-Latin literature.  For example, Giovan Battista made an analogy in his verse between the decaying greatness of Rome and the premature death of its young disciples.  Ruins were also seen as a symbol of shame and discredit of modern barbarism and destruction.

 In 1562, fragments of the 3rd century several plan were unearthed behind the church of Santi Cosma.  Giovanni Dosio records the fragments before they were moved to the Palazzo Farness. Dosio executed the illustrations, including the Frontispizio di Nerone, Bagni Di paolo and Septizonium.  The rumbles illustrate the journey of Rome it was ruled by different kingdoms, the emphasize put on security, the leadership style that existed and the role of religion in society.

 Question 2.

Borromeo, who has been recognized by the Catholic Church as a saint, is accredited with publishing the summary of Catholic Church traditions regarding the design of the church fourteen years after the conclusion of the Council of Trent. His design is based on the context of protestant reformations.  His design of the church was based on the ecclesiastic and secular source of authority. Borromeo had a great command of understanding of the church decrees and their intent.

His instruction of the church included his awareness of the Catholic Church architecture in Italy as well as of Church teaching and of recent and historic church and secular documents.  The wide range of ecclesiastical and secular sources enabled Borromeo to compile neither a theoretical nor a theological design, but a compilation of Church’s traditional designs elements and organizational strategies for catholic churches.6. Borromeo imagined the first picture within the context of his plans for teaching and reforming art, and under the larger umbrella of the catholic reformation.  Additionally, the picture reflects Borromeo’s strong aesthetic sense and his reform ideas about the use of iconography when depicting scenes with religious or devotional objects.  His work was highly motivated and specific.  


8. Within a decade of the completion of the Gesu, early Baroque influences could be seen in the modifications made to the urban pattern of Rome.  Pope Sixtus V began radical changes, and in his design program both guided the city’s development for the next hundred years or more and influenced urban design through Europe and eventually in America. His objective was to repopulate the hills of Rome, to integrate into one main street system the various work of his predecessors and to create an aesthetic utility.  

 9. Pope Sixtus was the first of the modern town planners.  From the beginning, he was aware of the city as a complex organism, and knew that the beauty of open squares and wide streets had to be buttressed by social implementation.  He was one of the rare men of his time, who was able to gather facts, and execute the scheme.  He allowed nothing to stand in the way of the realization of his plan.

 10. The terrible state in which Gregory XIII had the left Rome called for prompt and stern measures to curb the prevailing lawlessness.  His first actions in office were to restore order and justice in the city, which he achieved by bringing to justice thousands of brigands. He then concentrated on financial repair of the city by sale of offices, and levying taxes.  In a short while, he was able to gather enough resources to finance public works. Sixtus was impulsive, obstinate, autocratic, and severe, but he was open to large ideas, and approached his ideas with energy and determination, which often compelled him success.

 11. The palace of Versailles was created for the Sun king and is one of the single most French Baroque architectural monuments.  The palace is measured in classical forms, complex gardens, and luxurious interiors that glorify the power of the monarch.  It gives rise to imitations by dozens of other rulers throughout Europe.  It is reflective of politics and architectural themes that dominated the 17th century in France. The gardens presented the domain of King Louis as Roman, without requiring a replica of a Roman space but by evoking the classical past with art and engineering that is similar to and repeated classical forms.  

 12.  During the reign of King Louis XIV, state control, absolute power, and obedience were the main themes.  This was reflected in most Baroque architecture such as the Versailles garden. The garden is a colossal structure with three tiers arched windows, orthogonal lines, columns, and a design similar to that of Palazzo Chigi in Rome.  

 13. During the construction of the Versailles, the major concern was the use and supply of water for the entire existing garden.  This is similar with the need for social amenities created around Rome by many settlers who bought and built residential houses.  The idea behind the designed construction of the palace and redesigning Rome was based on decongesting the cities, linking driven areas through the construction of infrastructures such as streets and the provision of amenities.  

 14. Caravaggio introduced a new, lowly naturalism into Italian art, which was taken up numerous artists across Europe. His painting featured close-up compositions, foreshortened forms, and dark atmospheres pierced radically by theatrical light, the latter adding to the immediacy of sharply defined things. His brutal naturalistic style was viewed unsuitable for religious subjects. Critics of Caravaggio have criticized his work as representing a new sense of piety rooted in everyday life, but it may also be that he was driven to create scandal with his painting as he did with his actions.  However, Caravaggio paintings were dominated by massive bodies thrust into the foreground, expressive gestures, and the contrast of light and shadow, which defined his style.  

 15.   Caravaggio painted in a manner more realistic than the style vogue at the time in Rome. His work differed from the work of his contemporaries in different ways.  The people he depicted are plebian rather than idealized types of the Carracci or the mannerists. Caravaggio’s colors are varied and individualized to the fabric depicted; even the texture of the fabric is specific and recognizable. His lighting was carefully arranged in the studio, and it always issued from a specific source.  His subjects seem earthy and real in contrast to the uncertain race and temper, the vague setting in time and place, with which previous writers had invested their sacred figures.

 Threatened by the growing power of Protestantism, Rome functioned as a theocratic state during the Counter-reformation.  From 1597, Caravaggio’s painting showed a new kind of immediacy, the realism, simplicity, and piety of his work suited the taste of Roman Catholic authorities who commissioned him to produce religious scenes.  In the calling of St.Matthew, he depicted the traditional scene of Christ choosing Matthew, a wealthy tax collector, to become a disciple. Christ’s divinity is indicated only be the radiant beam of sunlight illuminating his face. Such an unconventional representation of divine revelation, characterized as an inward experience available to all, appealed to all, Protestants, and the Catholics, which had commissioned his painting.  

 Short essays

Source 1

Vincent Van Gogh is one of the greatest writers who had a great love of literature. Van Gogh utilized color and heavy impasto to suggest the spiritual nature of suffering and the eternal context in which it is eventually subsumed.  Using the same fundamental contrast of sky blue and warm ocher in which he had rendered his painted translation of the Miller’s peasant toiling at their hallowed cyclical labor, he endowed the scene with the subdued radiance of a religious icon.  

Van Gogh turned to nature for solace and strength as soon as his energy returned. Despite the fact that most of Vincent’s paintings conveyed a cheerful and lively mood, many other evoked a powerful sense of perceptual or psychological disturbances.  In his auvers paintings, we find them increasingly in the upper register of the skies, where they capture the sensation of profound optical intensity and spiritual intensity and mystery that we experience when we perceive the gradual darkening of the heavens from light, transparent blue at the horizon to heavily saturated opaque violet blue in the vault.

 Source 2

According to Robert Wallace, Van Gogh used arts to represent his signs of grief and fears.  He felt that the world was closing on him, and all escape roads were blocked. Vincent is considered one of the greatest Dutch painters.  He is also among the most important postimpressionists.  However, Van Gogh often felt sad and alone.  Through his use of color and distinctive brushes strokes, Van Gogh’s artwork reflects the strong emotions he felt.  Although he was sometimes depressed, Van Gogh was also enthusiastic about many things. He created works based on themes that interested him such as peasant life, self-portraits, and scenes from nature.  

His painting of landscapes was a focused on the beauty of nature. His landscape portraits are related to his thoughts about life and death.  Like wheat fields, Van cough used the subject of Cypress and olive trees to show cycles of life, and with harvesting, death.  His landscapes also show struggles with relationships. All his painting depicts not only, the natural setting and celebration of nature, but also people living within it and those who work there.  

According to Griselda, Van Gough saw scenes both in terms of the modes of representations current fifty and even two hundred years previously. Van Gogh unrestrained passion and thrilled contemplation of life, nature and art, and his intense spirituality, religious zeal and generous and sincere disposition make him stand out as unique painter.  Van Gogh painting was complicated at contained numerous meanings. Griselda argues that the paintings should be analyzed at the context of the 19th century.  During this period, the Europe was undergoing industrial   revolution and Van Gogh was clearly relates to the working conditions of a middle class worker.  


Despite the fact that Van Gogh was a professional failure, his work represents great mastery of arts.  Most of his work was based on landscapes and letters he accompanied.  His work is closely related to his personal life and the tragic “immature” death.  Regardless of the symbolic nature of his paintings and their relevance to his personal life, it is important as Griselda notes, to evaluate and interpret his work from a detailed angle.  


Grafton A & Most W (2010). The classical tradition. President and Fellows of Harvard College.  USA.

Jukka Jokilehto (2013). The history of architectural conservation.  Cengage learning, Belmont, USA.


Published in History
Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:59

Physical Science as Critical Thinking

Physical Science as Critical Thinking

Volare a Grandezza

Description of Symbols in the Heraldic Shield

1.0 Motto: Volare a Grandezza

Volare a Grandezza is a Latin phrase that means flying to greatness (S.O.M.A., 2010). This motto reflects the ambition and vision that I have for the academic and other aspects of success, in life. It means that I am ready to fly high to any height to achieve greatness. I always try to be the best in all that I do.

2.0 Animal: Hawk

The hawk symbolizes power and aggression. The attributes associated with the hawk include being observant, long-sightedness, guardianship, messenger from the universe, and wise of opportunities. In Native American culture, the hawk is symbolic to a messenger. It was believed that the hawk delivers messages such a reminder to the talent we are not utilizing, or the gratitude we are not expressing, or anything else we may be overlooking. There are many species of hawks, each of whom represents a unique message from the universe. Hawks are visionaries and protectors of the air. They are symbolic to the key of greater levels of consciousness.

Therefore, this symbolic power awakens the vision in us and inspires us to adopt a creative purpose for life. Having the hawk as a choice animal implies that our lives are filled with responsibility. We are required to seek the overall view.A hawk possesses a variety of hunting skills. For example, it follows the effort of its prey to get way, swiftly (Erickson, 2012). With the powerful beak and claws, it captures and kills its prey. For humans, this is indicative of destiny. A man can run but cannot hide from destiny. Eventually, destiny catches up with every man.

3.0 Plant: Oak Tree

Undoubtedly, the oak and the eagle are two masterpieces among God’s creation (Omeife, 2013). Each of the two is king in its domain. For example, the eagle is king among birds while the oak is king among trees. The oak tree is symbolic to courage and strength. Socrates, the great Greek, regarded the oak as an oracle tree. The leaves of the oak tree are medicinal. They are used to heal certain diseases. In the state of Georgia, the oak tree is state symbol for the strength, greatness, and endurance of the people of Georgia. In the same way, the oak tree in the heraldic shield symbolizes the need for strength and endurance, in order to be successful in endeavors of life.

4.0 Colors: Green, White, and Brown

Culture conditions the colors that we see (Gage, 1999). Every color has a positive and negative symbolic meaning (Hartman, 1998). However, this heraldic shield utilizes the desirable meanings of color. Green is symbolic for nature, environment, good health, youth, renewal, and spring. It carries all the positive connotations of nature. Brown denotes comfort, endurance, comfort, simplicity, and stability. White symbolizes simplicity, purity, youth, peace, and precision. These three colors converge in attributes such as good health, endurance, and stability. These are the values inherent in my personality and culture. For everything that I do, I want it to bring endurance, good health, and stability.

Works Cited

Erickson, L. Hawk Ridge: Minnesota’s Birds of Prey. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2012

Gage, J. Color and Meaning: Art, Science, and Symbolism. Berkeley/Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1999

Hartman, T. The Color Code: A New Way to See Yourself, Your Relationships, and Life. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1998

Omeife, C.O. The Eagle and the Oak Tree: A Reflection on Values and Choices. London: Xlibris Publishing, 2013

S.O.M.A. Soma’s Dictionary of Latin Quotations, Maxims, and Phrases. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2010


Published in Social Sciences
Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:56

Quality Improvement

Quality Improvement

Areas of Potential Improvement

As a hospital that offers both outpatient and inpatient services, there are various pertinent areas of improvement. The first area involves the time taken to respond to patients. This is among the most essential aspects of performance. The second area of improvement is the implementation of electronic health records. This will boost the efficiency of heath care delivery in the organization. The third pertinent area of improvement is level of job satisfaction among staff members. Adequate levels of satisfaction will greatly boost overall standards of organizational performance in the hospital.

 Data needed to monitor improvement

The number of complaints from patients will be massively essential in determining whether meaningful improvements have been attained in this organization (Johnson, 2011). The average response time on patients reporting in this health care entity will also be an essential platform for monitoring improvement. Additionally, the number of records digitized for each patient will provide a framework for evaluating improvement.

 Data Collection Tools to Collect Performance Information

Various tools for data collection are available for the collection of performance information. Direct observation is the first tool that can facilitate for the evaluation of performance information (Kelly, 2011). This involves the scrutiny of different performance indicators without asking the different stakeholders any question. Interviews are also essential tools for collection of performance information. These would involve employees and patients as opposed to direct scrutiny. The third platform for data collection involves questionnaires. These are meant to provide responses on different aspects of performance from the selected participants.

 Information Collected by each Tool

The three tools would facilitate for the collection of different information types. The questionnaires can cater for the collection of wide-ranging data on performance. In essence, the questionnaires can be massively effective in evaluation of information on each area of improvement (Lighter, 2010). Interviews can cater for the collection of data on the efficiency of organizational systems for response to patients. Additionally, the interviews can help in evaluation of employee satisfaction. Direct observations can facilitate for the determination of the extent to which patients’ records have been converted into digital format.

 Strengths and Weaknesses of each Tool

The three tools are characterized by various weaknesses and strengths. The interviews are excellent in that they provide viewpoints in line with the experiences of different stakeholders. They are also easier to use compared to other platforms for data collection. However, interviews are prone to bias from respondents (Hertz, 2010). Direct observations are advantageous because they are not prone to bias. However, direct observations do not provide adequate frameworks for determining the viewpoints of important stakeholders such as employees or patients. Questionnaires are advantageous because they can facilitate for the collection of quantitative and qualitative information. This caters for higher levels of accuracy in performance measurement. However, questionnaires consume a lot of time and resources.

 Comparison of Data Collection Tools

The different tools are characterized by various attributes of similarities and differences. Questionnaires and interviews are similar in that they involve respondents. Additionally, both tools are prone to bias from respondents (Johnson, 2011). In contrast, they are different in that interviews cater for the evaluation of qualitative data while questionnaires can collect different types of data. Direct observations are unique in that they do not involve respondents.

 Tools that Measure and Display QI Data

Microsoft Excel and SPSS are two notable tools that can facilitate for the evaluation and display of QI data. They are both computer-based and provide exceptional platforms for performance measurement.

 Type of Information

Microsoft Excel is an excellent tool that measures and displays quantitative data on quality improvement. In essence, this tool largely emphasizes on numerical data. In contrast, (Lighter, 2010) SPSS can measure and display both quantitative and qualitative information. It enhances the framework of display by generating charts and graphs.

 Strengths and Weaknesses of each Tool

A notable advantage of Microsoft Excel is that it is considerably easier to operate. In terms of shortcomings, this tool is largely based on quantitative analysis and does not provide adequate systems for qualitative evaluation of performance. SPSS requires technical skills, and this is a notable weakness of the tool (Hertz, 2010). Despite this weakness, SPSS is highly effective in evaluation and display of different information types.

 Comparison of Tools

The tools are similar and distinct in various ways. From the perspective of similarities, it is notable that both platforms are computer-based. They are hence based on software applications. In terms of distinctness, SPSS is significantly complex as compared to Microsoft Excel (Johnson, 2011). These attributes underline how the two platforms of measuring and displaying data can be compared.

 Helpfulness of the Tools

These tools are helpful to health organizations in various ways. They are essential indicators for determining the most effective changes for integration into the operational blueprint. They are also helpful in determining the best area of improvement in a health care organization. This is because the needs of different organizations are massively different. Additionally, the tools are vital in that they enhance the standards of accuracy in the collection and evaluation of data. 


Hertz, H. S. (2010). Health care criteria for performance excellence, New York, NY:        DIANE Publishing

Johnson, J. (2011). Implementing continuous quality improvement, Sudbury, MA: Jones     & Bartlett Learning

Kelly, D. L. (2011). Applying quality management in health care, Health Administration   Press

Lighter, D. (2010). Advanced performance improvement in health care, Sudbury, MA:      Jones & Bartlett Learning


Published in Sociology
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