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Items filtered by date: May 2014

Friday, 30 May 2014 11:44

Relevance of Higher Education

Relevance of Higher Education

Higher education refers to education acquired at universities, colleges and institutes of technology. It also refers to education that is acquired at college-level institutions. Vocational school and career colleges are alternative examples of such types of institutions where students can receive higher education. Students acquire higher education after completing their secondary/high school educations. It is the desire for most high school students to join their dream college. Traditionally, children have been trained to believe that a good education equals to a good life in the future.

With this in mind, high school students worked hard to go to college. Traditionally, it was a guarantee that students who went to college had a better life than those who did not go to college. Unfortunately, such perceptions have begun to fail as more students being to perceive higher education as not so important. Higher education is essential to all students as it helps them create a platform that they can later use to determine their future life.


In the past, children were advised to read hard, excel in their studies and go to college. An entrance to college would mean that the student’s life would be bright as opportunities will be available. Unfortunately, today, the relevance of higher education continues to dwindle as students embrace the idea that higher education is indeed not necessary. Students are no longer motivated to join colleges and universities to further their studies. The success of college dropouts such as bill Gates (Microsoft), Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook), Steve Job (Apple Inc), Richard Branson (Virgin Airlines) and Gabe Newell (Valve Corporation) has further instilled in most students the desire to pursue their dreams without first seeking a college degree (Toby, 2012).

 The above mentioned billionaires are among hundreds of other successful businessmen that dropped out of prestigious universities such as Harvard to pursue their dream careers, and succeeded. Similarly, students argue that there are numerous famous celebrities and notable figures that have successes without a college education. Notables such as Abraham Lincoln and Henry Ford, as well as celebrities such as Will smith, Simon Conwell and Halle Berry, did not go to college, and they are very successful today (Allen, 2007).

The growing perception, among students that higher education is not compulsory is detrimental to a person’s well being, as well as the overall economy of the country.The famous celebrities, politicians and entrepreneurs that have become millionaires despite the lack of a college degree represent a small fraction of the millions of citizens who will need a college degree so as to excel in life. It is a fact that not everyone has the genius mind of establishing a business that can rise to become a multi-billion industry. Similarly, times have changes, and whereas it was easy to survive on odd job in the past, it is currently very difficult. Most of the billionaires who did not attend college began their career by doing odd jobs so as to survive (Schmidt, 2011).

Currently, the economic status of the country is harsh and with high rates of unemployment, accessing even the odd jobs would be difficult. Higher education is very important to a person undertaking it, as well as the society that he resides in.There are several strategies that can be adopted to mitigate the rise of such a dangerous mentality among children.  First, societies should embark on a public awareness effort to encourage high school students to study towards achieving college qualification and attending college. College undergraduates, at the community level, would be selected and paired with high school students from schools across the community. The undergraduate students would acts as mentors and coaches to the high school students. The undergraduates would also acts as advisors to high school students.

  The undergraduate would advice students on available course and the market viability of existing courses, selection and admission processes, as well as means of seeking financial assistance. Colleges should also provide accessible financial aid and work study options to students who are at risk of not attending college due to financial constraints. Most students from poor families are guaranteed education up to high school level. After high school, most never study any further due to lack of funds. It is time colleges, universities and vocational training institution provide students with financial assistance. Colleges must present students with scholarship and federal aid options. The presence of these options gives high school students adequate incentives to consider going to college.

In most instances, students that find college education irrelevant are pushed by factors such as financial constraints. The reality that college education will not be provided make such students accept the reality and believe that it is not necessary (Toby, 2012).. Lastly colleges and universities should revise their entry points so as to make the reality of joining college a reality. The high entrance point’s means that most students are turned away from their dream colleges universities and colleges can provide students with entry points that are lower than they currently stand. Similarly, states can construct more community colleges. Community colleges provide students who have not performed so well, with an alternative and affordable study option.

Higher education is Important

A diploma is now a standard prerequisite in most organizations. Employers now believe that higher education provides employees with not only professional education, but also essential social skills that can be utilized at the workplace. Higher education provides students with social skills as they get to interact with their peers. Similarly, the spirit of teamwork is further cemented in colleges as students undertake assignments in groups. Students who embrace higher education are able to interact and understand diverse cultures. The ability to interact with diverse cultures prepares students to the professional world where interaction with diverse cultures is unavoidable (Gora, 2013). In contrast, students who do not receive college/university education might learn the ropes of his job at the work place, but lack adequate social skills. The risk of narrow mindedness is high among employees who have not attended college/university.

This is because of the minimal level of exposure compared to students with college/university qualifications.Students who lack college/university qualification have minimal life and career opportunities compared to students who have college qualifications.  The risk with having a majority of the populace without college qualifications is that opportunities for career growth and life development may be available, but the populace lacks qualifications to fill those jobs. In college, students get to be exposed to different courses and units that they can specialize and use to acquire jobs. Unfortunately, for most high school graduates the only jobs available are menial jobs.

Similarly, the room for career advancement is minimal as the student cannot compete with his qualified colleagues. The ability of a college student to advance in his career also means that the college graduate has a higher chance of getting well paying jobs that the students who did not pursue his education beyond high school. According to the US census bureau a college graduate earns a minimum of $54000 annually compared to $ 30000 earned by an employee with a high school diploma. The disparity in salary occurs because of the diverse opportunities that the college graduate has over the high school diploma employee (Kissel, 2013) 

A majority of individuals with high school diplomas, as their highest level of academic qualifications, struggle in life compared to those with college qualifications. High school education enables a person to improve his overall life. This is because the person has a high chance of  not only getting a good job, but also has the means to access better healthcare services in times of illness. Similarly, a high income means that the person has access to better dietary nutrition, better health practices and greater economic stability and security. Overall, a person with a college diploma has a higher chance of achieving overall life satisfaction than a person with only a high school diploma.  

With only a high school diploma, it is likely that the person will struggle from the first day (Mangan, 2013). This is contrast to the person with college qualifications as his likelihood of getting a job soon after college is high. However, for a holder of a high school diploma, access to well paying jobs will be difficult.  The only option to success for most college dropouts and those with high school diplomas is to venture into business and entrepreneurship and hope that the business thrives to success.Most students who fail to go to college do so because of environmental influences. The most susceptible students are students form low income areas. These students are influenced to believe that education beyond high school is not mandatory.

The culture of hustling so as to survive is instilled, in such children when they are as young as ten years old. Unfortunately, the belief in such mentality results to increased desire to abandon school and hustle. Similarly, children who do not desire to attend school are often influenced by the fact that their friends, relatives or even parents did not attend college, but still made it in their lives. Some students are raised in families where no one has ever attended college. The motivation to study beyond college is, therefore, very low. Such students, however, need to realize that, despite the fact that no one in their family has ever attended college, they can set the pace for change. Students need not fit into family practices that are obsolete.

Whereas it was easy for parents to stop studying after high school and still lead a decent lifestyle, it is currently difficult to do so (Toby, 2012). Times have changed, and those with minimal levels of education are disadvantaged in society. Whereas it may not be easy to convince some parents and relatives why pursuing further education it important, it is vital to try and convince them of the need for college education so as to increase chances of leading better lives than they did. As seen in earlier discussions, education significantly improves a person’s life (Gora, 2013). Some high school students argue that they cannot attend college because they cannot fit. The element of fitting in, or not arises when students perceive themselves to be different from the rest.

Students from minority groups, for instance, may fear that their unique status may put them at a disadvantage to the rest of students. However, students should realize that the pursuit of education does not discriminate. In fact, college and universities comprise of leading places where cultures and people from diverse continents meet. It is impossible not to fit in, in college. Similarly, students should realize that colleges admit students in their thousands (Schmidt, 2011). A student from a minority group e.g. an African will be admitted among thousands of other students from other cultures.

Critics, however, argue that higher education is one of the American products that are highly overrated. They argue that performance in high school plays a crucial role in determining whether a student will excel in college or not. A student who may have been underperforming in high school will perform even worse when forced to go to college (Vaughan, 2005). The levels of education becomes complex as a student sores higher in the education scale.It is, therefore, likely that the student will pass through college with very weak scores, or worse a fail.

In the end, such a student will have wasted approximately four years of his life that he could have otherwise invested in a practical course that prepares him for careers that he is gifted in. the four years in college would be a waste because the students will have performed so dismally that the college certificate cannot be used for professional purposes such as education. Exceedingly poor performance in college has seen students drop out mid-studies having earned little or nothing at all from their college education. Unfortunately, such students who realize they are not meant for college/university education make this realization when it is too late. There are often left in debt, their self esteem destroyed, and their plans devastated by the realization that they have to start planning their future from scratch (Vaughan, 2005).

The perception that there are some people not suitable for college education is wrong. College education is suitable for all. The essential factor is to determine the ideal course to undertake. Even the brightest students risk failure if they select courses that they are not familiar with (Allen, 2007). Students should ensure that they select courses that tally with their interests, future career expectation, as well as their abilities. Similarly, other than the mainstream public universities, there are various community colleges that students with any result can enroll and study.


Higher education is mandatory to all students despite their social and economic status. Higher education is education that is pursued beyond high school. High school prepares students for further learning in universities and colleges. It is essential, therefore, that students complete their students to university levels.  University education provides students with social and professional benefits. Socially, students get to interact with other cultures where they learn to appreciate and co-exist with them. Professional academic education taught at universities prepares students with essential critical and logical skills needed for their preferred profession. There might be a few persons who excel without university education, but a majority others live in misery and are constantly faced with life’s hardships. 


Allen, H. (2007). Why is higher education important? Retrieved from http://www.crosswalk.com/family/homeschool/why-is-higher-education-important-1367463.html?ps=0

Gora, Joann M. in the Hoosier state, a cause for cautious optimism. Presidency 15.1 (2012): 36-40.

Kissel, Adam. Will Universities Rediscover Their Core Mission As They Shrink? Academic Questions 24.4 (2011): 429-437.

Mangan, K. Report Calls For Renewed Focus On College Completion. Chronicle of Higher Education 59.21 (2013): A9. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

Schmidt, Peter. "In Push for Diversity, Colleges Pay Attention to Socioeconomic Class." Chronicle of Higher Education 57.5 (2010): B5-B7.

Toby, J. (2012). The lowering of higher education in American. Transaction book

Vaughan, George B., and John MacDonald. "(Over) Selling the Community College: What Price Access? Chronicle of Higher Education 52.10 (2005): B12-B14.


Published in Education
Friday, 30 May 2014 11:40

“The Secret in their Eyes.”

The Secret in their Eyes.”    

The appeal of “The secret In Their Eyes” is in its lithe and mysterious quality.  The movie resembles a derivative of cop caper, with Benjamin Esposito reminiscing about his mid-1970s partnership with Pablo Sandoval in battling the corrupt ineptness of the Buenos Aires  just system bureaucracy before the Argentina descends into dictatorship.  The movie deploy cheap and cheerful brashness shades and strategic cinematic codes that mimic the mass media infiltration of experience, cultural colonialism and the contemporaneous US influence of the Latin America during this time.  The director combines elements of crime procedurals, romance and political thriller which were cross-fertilized into what was planned as an idealistic meditation on love and abhorrence, loss, guiltiness and regret.  The movie revisits the violence of argentine past during the junta rule.  

 Historical event influence on the film

The story of the El Secreto is narrated in the early 2000s, but the numerous flashbacks to the 1970s, as the central character, Benjamin Esposito, revisits an old murder case that he had closed in order to write a novel about it.  The context of the murder, which was committed in 1974, is an indication of the political environment in argentine during the era of Aires.  The content of the crime (rape and slaughter) indicates the atrocities committed during Argentina’s darkest moments.   The culture of drinking as influenced by the American culture is depicted by the drunken of Benjamin. The acquittal of the former convict on the case of rape and murder represent innocence in the wake of the brutality and conflict. His conviction was a clear representation of corruption and injustices.

 The colonel’s junta coupled by the disappearance of thousands of people after the peronist government’s chaotic degeneration emphasizes the desperate situation which was in the context of a human story (Tom Jenning, 2010). This story is expected to carry more weight than the historical specialties.  However, the story begins before the excesses of the worst fascist when the existing modes of repression increasingly become organized and institutionalized while must human right advocates and society remained quiet to avoid confrontation.

During this period, the middle-class and lower-class did not have protection.  Characters such as Gomez, Morales and Liliana, did not have protection against brutalities of Colonel Junta, their rich families and other elite sponsors.  The ease with which Benjamin got out of jail and his consequent relationship with Irene represents the social democracy’s uneasy coalition of different classes and professions.  In addition, the liberal pretensions failed to secure meaningful justice. The main protagonists’ shambolic careers and their private lives are mere wastage of time. The historical circumstances of the movie reveal a different story.  The flashbacks of the film reveal a brave new world for Argentina of affectionate national partnership.  It reveals a country that has settled from the dark days of dirty wars.


The movie depicts the social crisis reflected in the massive industrial and political unrest across Latin America in 1970s, conflicting class interests as depicted by various characters.  The movie gives a serious message on the transcendence of communal trauma, which was experienced during this time of history. The movie borrows influence from the American culture such the crime investigation procedures depicted in American movies and the social structure of the American people. This indicates the influence of America not only on the film industry, but also in the social, economic and political structure of Latin America countries during the time.


Tom Jenning (2010). A Brief Encounter with History. Film review. Vol. 71, No. 19, October 2010.

Losada, M. (2010). “The Secret in Their Eyes” Historical Memory. Cineaste, Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, 2010.


Friday, 30 May 2014 11:17

Art and Politics in Latin America

Art and Politics in Latin America

Pan Labyrinth is a chilling and fanciful story that is based against the fascist regime of rural Spain of 1944 (Pan Labyrinth. com, 2013). This is a story about Ofelia a twelve year old girl who is lonely and dreamy. Guillermo Del Toro’s in this film presents the society’s fear as we see in the life of Ofelia. Ofelia is faced with terrors in her dream world as she tries to escape and partly as a form of defiance against the violent regime of her step father. This is a film that not only shows the presence of monsters, but they also walk among humans. The main message of this film is the idea that innocence has a power that cannot be imagined by evil.

This is the underlying message that runs all through the film because Ofelia personifies the idea that there is nothing that is more powerful other than active choice to stand up by the atrocity and at the same time stay pure and uncorrupted. This essay examines the graphic and unflinching treatment of violence and innocence as presented by Del Toro in his film.The film is set in 1944. This is a time when the Spanish Civil War had come to an end five years ago (Richards, 1998). The central art image of this film is based on the ancient myth of Saturn/ Cronus of the Romans and Greeks respectively. Del Toro shows that his major inspiration of incorporating supernatural creatures in his work was through the work of Francisco de Goya, the painter.

In fact in one of the scenes, we see fairies being bitten by a Pale Man into half and gobble them. This directly relates to one of Goya’s Black Paintings, Saturn devouring his son (Loga, 1910). This painting shows god’s expression that denotes madness, violence and fear while devouring his child (Bolen, 1989).The monster in del Toro’s film is Cronus the Greek Myth who is an epitome of cruelty. The Pale Man Scene is a reflection of both Francoism and Vidal, and it forms the most cryptic and captivating reflection since it has a major symbolic aspect. Pagan and Christian elements do mingle with fantasy in the way we see Ofelia in the underworld. It is a major nightmare for Ofelia since she is filled with fear of being consumed by Cronus.

The entire Pale Man scene acts a reflection of reality of the oppressive regime under Franco (Crandall, 1984). Del Toro’s idea of depicting the image of violence was influenced by is an experience in Mexico (Del Toro, 2006).The concept of innocence is presented in the film. The child’s physical and emotional needs are in collision with Cronus Complex. A child has the right to be taken care of as part of the human experience. Lack of the basic nurture means that a child is lost in family demands, by providing care instead of being cared. Ofelia in Pan’s Labyrinth is the caretaker of her mother who sick and frail. This scene reveals a shocking scenario especially when she has to take care of her mother who is hemorrhaging. Her mother only whispers “help me” as she is covered in a pool of blood.

The film presents horrors as we see Ofelia being a little girl escaping the violence and horrors of war. In one, scene, we see Vidal is enjoying himself as he shoots the heads of some rebels. We also view clandestine activities of a housekeeper working for Vidal as she informs the rebels about Vidal’s plans and whereabouts. The world that Ofelia lives in is one filled with violence, hatred, corruption and fascism, but still there are hope, righteousness, forgiveness, and truth, and most essential of all being love. John King shows that Mexico in its Hollywood film presented the exotic images of danger and desire. He says “Mexico is a region where he saw dark desires run riot. It not only focus on wine, song, and women, but also treasury, death and rape (Fuentes 1985, in King: 459).


Pan Labyrinth (2013) official website. Retrieved from Http://www.wbshop.com/product/code/1000032077.do

On November 25, 2013

Fuentes (1985) Pancho Villa, the Mexican Revolution, John Reed, and Raoul Walsh (King: 459. King: 459

Crandall, J (1984) the Cronus Complex. Clinical Social works Journal. 12:2, p 108-117.

Bolen, J (1989). Gods in Everyman. San Francisco: Harper and Row.

Del Toro, G (2006). El labyrinth del fauno. Madrid: Ocho y medio.

Loga, V (1910). Francisco de Goya. Leipzig: Klinkhardt and Biemann.

Richards, M (1998) a time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain, 1936-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge UP

Published in Social Sciences
Friday, 30 May 2014 09:57

Chosen Scientist: Chen-Ning Yang

Chosen Scientist: Chen-Ning Yang


Chen-Ning Yang is one of the most reputable physicists from the People’s Republic of China.   He is a distinguished professor of physics, and has greatly influenced me in numerous ways. In my daily undertakings, I look up to this scientist as my greatest role model. Since his days as an undergraduate in China, Professor Yang has made outstanding contributions to the field of physics and science at large. I aim to be a recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics at some point in life just as Professor Yang did in the 1950s. This scientist has always been distinguished in all the different universities where he has worked.

He has received numerous accolades in the United States (Yang 76), Russia, and also in China. As a young physicist, I am greatly inspired by his achievements. This is why I always read his publications, and learn from his excellent achievements in physics. In the journey towards these exceptional achievements, this scientist has experienced numerous challenges. For instance, there was political unrest in China when Professor Yang was in elementary and high school.

This disrupted the normal educational program in most schools but Yang was courageous enough to study extensively.Apart from political unrest, Yang was also faced with the challenge of inadequate research facilities during his undergraduate program (Yang 61). However, this was not a stumbling block towards his rise to the highest echelons of excellence in science. I have been strongly inspired by Yang’s resilience and quest for academic excellence despite the numerous stumbling blocks he faced.  Moving to the United States was also not a simple task to Yang especially due to the language barriers. However, Yang overcame these problems, and has even been granted American citizenship.


Part 2: Online Physics Class (http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/)

This website has excellent free lessons on almost all topics in physics. The numerous lessons have been planned systematically in order to ensure that the reader obtains adequate information on each topic. From the fundamental concepts to the technical topics, this online resource meets the needs of any physics students. One of the most outstanding aspects of this online class is that the lessons have been provided into formats. The first format is based on written information. The second format in which information on this website has been presented is a visual platform for each lesson. In view of these platforms, the online class uses a holistic approach towards the enhancement of knowledge in physics.There are various reasons why I chose this online resource. Firstly, it has an excellent user-interface that enhances the framework of navigation.

Any user can easily navigate through the website, and this is an essential attribute of online learning resources. The second aspect that has contributed towards selecting this website is that it is free.Users of these online resources are not charged irrespective of the time spent on it. This is an incredible attribute because it underlines the website’s dedication towards enhancing or promoting knowledge in physics. This is different from most online resources that have the tendency to charge a lot of dollars for access into the different lessons. The integration of both written and visual communication platforms is another attribute that has contributed towards me selecting the website. Excellent explanations on different topics in physics have been provided in the videos.



The Physics Classroom (2013), Physics tutorial, accessed on 21st November 2013 from             http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/

Yang, Chen. Selected papers, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2013


Published in Business Studies
Friday, 30 May 2014 09:53

QI Plan

QI Plan

 The implementation of a quality improvement plan is among the most essential aspects of bolstering the standards of health care in any hospital. There are numerous attributes that help in enhancing the outcomes of a quality improvement plan. One of the most notable aspects within this framework is the alignment of the organization’s mission to the plan. The relevant framework of alignment facilitates for a smooth implementation process.

Another critical factor of success involves the issue of performance measurement. This aspect is inherently associated with quality improvement plan. Adequate strategies for performance measurement must be used additionally, the leadership systems within an organization are massively essential in terms of streamlining the implementation blueprint of the QI plan. This analysis focuses on the pertinent aspects of the quality improvement plan for Devereux Hospital. In order to realize the overall organizational goals, the implementation of this plan must be founded on a solid leadership framework. These are critical aspects that will be evaluated in the entire document. The plan has been subdivided into distinctive components in order to enhance implementation efficiency.

 QI Plan Part 1: Consumerism

Devereux Hospital is the chosen organization for this quality improvement plan. The hospital’s core mission is to provide exceptional inpatient and outpatient medical services. Additionally, this organization has an excellent mechanism for the management and treatment of emergency services (Ogilvie, 2010). Since the hospital’s establishment, it has consistently provided exceptional medical services to many patients. It is thus an essential pillar within the framework of community health. This part of the quality improvement plan focuses on how the Devereux Hospital will enhance the quality of treatment or patient outcomes.

Firstly, high levels of accuracy will be achieved while collecting data from patients. Such accuracy is a fundamental aspect that helps in ensuring that the relevant treatment is provided to patients. Apart from accuracy in data collection, another vital aspect that underlines the efficiency of this quality improvement plan to patients’ treatment is that it is excellently aligned to the diagnostic framework (Hernandez, 2009). The levels of accuracy in the diagnosis process are inherently connected to the treatment efficiency.

 QI Part II: Quality Data Collection

In the health care sector, one of the most essential aspects stipulated within the framework of compliance is accuracy in data collection. This is an essential attribute that is required for the Devereux Hospital to be accredited. In line with this aspect, the QI plan seeks to improve the standards used by medical staff and nurses in the collection of data from patients. It greatly facilitates for quality attainment within the overall framework of treating patients. Another vital aspect of consideration in data collection is the digitization of records. The Devereux Hospital must use technological platforms in the management and collection of data (Johnson, 2011). This is vital in terms of the attainment of the stipulated standards of accreditation. There are various ways in which the QI plan for technological integration in data collection will help.

It will greatly bolster the efficiency of organizational operations.Apart from organizational operations at the hospital, technology is an excellent platform that enhances cost effectiveness. The management of costs is immensely crucial towards the realization of organizational efficiency in the health care sector. In view of this aspect, the Devereux Hospital is not an exception. This is why the QI plan is based on an all inclusive framework. The entire workforce in this organization has the fundamental responsibility to maintain the required accreditation standards while collecting data. This applies to the senior nurse leaders and also the new employees within the medical team. There are various tools necessary for the collection of quality data in this organization. The first tool is the use of records obtained by nurses from patients (Ginter, 2013).

The second tool involves the collection of data by physicians within the diagnostic framework. Adequate caution must be taken by the different staff members to ensure that the collected data is not subjected to irrelevant alterations. Apart from the collection of data, another vital aspect of the QI plan is that the hospital requires adequate systems for displaying performance data. One of the best tools that will facilitate for this framework is the use of technological devices such as spreadsheets and other customized computer applications. In view of such aspects (Johnson, 2011), the QI plan will be greatly beneficial towards the enhancement of data collection standards in this organization.

 QI Part III: Managing and Improving Quality

The management and improvement of quality is the next component of the QI plan for the Devereux Hospital. This component narrows down on a comprehensive improvement scheme that takes into consideration the pertinent elements of the QI plan that are directly connected to the management platforms (Kelly, 2011). Within this framework, the differentiation of the quality improvement process and performance measurement is vitally essential. Performance measurement narrows down on the evaluation of the strides or steps that have been taken by a health care organization towards the implementation of the QI plan. In essence, performance measurement is founded on a solid framework of measurable indicators. These indicators are vitally essential in terms of facilitating for the management and improvement of quality in the hospital (Block, 2006). For this QI plan, one of the most notable indicators is the accuracy levels attained during data collection. In view of this indicator, high levels of accuracy will underline the organization’s excellent alignment towards the different platforms of the QI plan. In contrast, minimal standards of accuracy will be indicators of the organization’s lack of adequate mechanisms for alignment to the stipulated standards of accreditation.

The framework of performance measurement must be accompanied by reliable mechanisms of intervention. In essence, the interventional framework ensures that adequate remedies are introduced into each setback. On the other hand, quality improvement processes are those strategies integrated into an organization in order to facilitate for the attainment of competence. These strategies are integral components within the QI plan blueprint for change. Since the organization’s goal is to provide world-class health care services. The blueprint for quality improvement is excellently aligned to this organizational goal. It is fundamentally pertinent for the organization to use accredited standards within the framework of comparing performance. At the Devereux Hospital, this will be implemented through a timeline. Within the framework of this timeline, targets can be set in order to determine the organization’s overall alignment to the QI plan (Lighter, 2010). Apart from target setting, another vital standard of comparing performance involves accreditation. The organization’s accreditation by external regulatory bodies will be an excellent indicator of quality attainment.

 QI Plan Part IV: Implementing and Revising

The implementation phase is the most crucial stage within the framework of the QI plan. Adequate strategies must be used in the entire plan. The first pertinent aspect within the implementation blueprint is the identification of performance activity outcomes. There are various outcomes intended for the performance activity. Firstly, the enhancement of the quality of patient outcomes is a fundamental target (Ogilvie, 2010). This will underline the ability of the hospital to align itself to the quality improvement plan. The second aspect that will underline quality outcomes is the alleviation of the time taken to respond to patients. In view of this platform, there should be no delays within the entire framework of treating patients. Additionally, competence of the hospital’s medical staff is another fundamental outcome that characterizes the quality improvement plan.

The enlightenment of patients is another vital aspect of the QI plan. In this hospital, all staff members will be enlightened about the plan using the latest technological systems. For instance, handouts will be issued to the staff members in order to familiarize them with the required accreditation standards. Workshops will also be organized in order to keep the staff updated about the QI plan (Kelly, 2011). The organizational leaders will play a significant role in terms of communicating to the staff members about the QI plan. Additionally, organizational leaders must provide the relevant information concerning the entire QI initiative.


This analysis provides a comprehensive blueprint of the QI plan for the Devereux Hospital. The entire plan is comprised of various parts. The effective implementation of the components of each part is massively essential towards the attainment of the different stipulated goals of the plan. All staff members in the hospital must be involved in the QI implementation framework. Additionally, the alignment of the plan to the hospital’s mission is massively essential.


Block, D. J. (2006). Health care outcomes management, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning

Ginter, P. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Hernandez, S. (2009). Strategic human resource management in health services, Mason,    OH: South-Western

Johnson, J. (2011). Implementing continuous quality improvement, Sudbury, MA: Jones     & Bartlett Learning

Kelly, D. L. (2011). Applying quality management in health care, Health Administration   Press

Lighter, D. (2010). Advanced performance improvement in health care, Sudbury, MA:      Jones & Bartlett Learning

Ogilvie, L. (2010). Strategic planning for nurses, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning


Published in Sociology

The Drive for Justice: Dirty Harry (1971) and Killer (1989)

Justice refers to the conformity to moral rightness in an action. The rightness of an action is based on ethics, rationality, law, religion and or equity. In the film industry, the aspect of justice has been predominant. Movie producers who specialize in crime films strive to show criminals, their crimes, victims of their crimes and the quest for justice.  The film Dirty Harry (1972) and The Killer (1989) are examples of crime films where the villain is killed by police in questionable circumstances.

When the criminal in the film is captured, killed or arrested, viewers perceive that justice has been served. Unfortunately, the execution of justice in this crime films is not always legal. The crime film demonstrates how the police are changing the idea and beliefs of justice. It appears as if justice using the right channels is slow and sometimes ineffective. The police are thus taking the law into their own hands violating the legal procedure of handling criminals. The appropriate research question is “what can society consider real justice?”


Author David Bordwell in the article enough to make strong men Weep analyzes how John Woos films are different compared to other Hong King films.  Bordwell (2000) demonstrates how director Woo deviates from the norm and presents detectives form a different perspective.  According to Bordwell (2000) the film the killer “is a triumph of sheer romanticism”. Police detective Li Yong is first presented as a detective who is determined to capture assassin Ah Jong. However, the detective comes to realize that Jong only kills people that deserve to die. The detective is also moved by Jong’s efforts to make amends for the innocent victims caught in his line of fire. 

For instance, detective Li realizes that Jong is looking for money to pay, for Jennie’s eye surgery. Jennie is blinded after she is caught in the middle of a shootout. Li also witnesses Jong taking an injured boy to a hospital.  Detective Li is moved by Jong’s good will and instead of arresting him, he liaise with Jong to destroy the Triad. A bromance between detective Li and assassin Jong develops.Detective Li no longer perceives Jong as a criminal though it is clear that he is. The deviation from the norm is also seen in the film Dirty Harry. Inspector Callahan is determined to arrests serial killer Scorpio who is wrecking havoc in the city by kidnapping and killing innocent civilians. When Callahan finally manages to arrest Scorpio he realizes that Scorpio cannot be charged because Callahan searched his own without a warrant (IMDb, 2013).

Scorpio is released, and Callahan is certain he would kill again. Callahan decides to take the law into his own hands and confront Scorpio on his own. Callahan eventually kills Scorpio albeit without following the proper legal channels thus sacrificing his career as a detective. In both films, it is evident that efforts to adhere to the law were thwarting efforts to capture the villains. The only way to serve justice to the victims and society was by breaking their beliefs in the law.   As detectives, Callahan and Li are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that law and order is maintained. Similarly, the law of the land outlines the proper channels that detectives have to follow when handling issues related to crime and social order.

However, when faced with a situation where the law appears to uphold criminal activities at the expense of the rest of society, the detectives have no choice but to go against the set laws.Gledhill & Neale argue that gangster films struggle with the problem of offering a convincing analysis of the relationship the genre to reality. Crime films strive to achieve the ultimate goals of providing viewers with the American Dream i.e. the acquisition of justice regardless of method (Gledhill & Neale, 1995). In Dirty Harry, inspector Callahan and villain Scorpio do not see eye to eye. Callahan is determined to have him arrested. However, the arrests become elusive as the proper legal channels become a hindrance to Callahan’s efforts to grant his residents justice.

 Callahan efforts are further thwarted as Scorpio gets an order stopping Callahan from following him. He finally decides to pursue Scorpio without authorization and kills him. The police-murderer situation in the film Killer has a twist. Assassin Jong was Li’s first main focus, but later they form a friendship and work together against the Triad i.e. the main criminal organization. In both films, the directors attempt to demonstrate the reality with regard to strategies that detectives resort to in their quest for justice. The death of the villains leads to the resolutions of a problem within a society. Gledhill & Neale argue that the death of the villains always comes off as tragic as it demonstrates the failure of a person at self-assertion, which the society refuses to acknowledge.

The death of the villains marks the end of an era of evil, and tyranny and the beginning of a new life. The dead villain is perceived as a person who has channeled his energies towards the wrong direction. The killing of the villains by detective is an indicator of society taking responsibility for letting the problem persists in society (IMDb, 2013).In the two films, the aspect of vigilante justice is evident. Vigilante justice involves and individual taking the law into one’s own hands. Detective Li is bitter with Wong Hoi’s shooting of his “friend” Jong. When the shootout at the church end and the police arrive to arrest Wong Hoi, detective Li decided to shoot him dead.

It is clear that he took the law into his own hand perceiving that Wong will not get a deserving sentence for his crime (IMDb, 2013). According to Li, Wong deserved to die and by his death justice would have been served.  In the film Dirty Harry, inspector Callahan is not impressed with the way the city is handling Scorpio’s case, and he decides to pursue him without authorization. When Callahan corners him, he shoots at him and kills him, perceiving that justice has been served. Callahan throws his badge into the river as a show of defiance against mainstream justice.The two films are also an indicator of the downfall of societal pampering of criminals. Inspector Callahan has lost patience with the existing justice system that sets Scorpio free thus giving him a chance to kill more people.

 Scorpio has continued to call chaos in the city and appears to be in control of the police and the mayor. He captures and kills ordinary citizens and demands ransom in exchange for the life of the kidnapped victims.  It appears as if Scorpio is holding the city and its resident’s hostage. For fear of losing more lives, the mayor readily gives in to the demands of Scorpio. These actions displease Callahan who believes Scorpio does not deserve to acquire the demands he is making. Unfortunately, even after gathering adequate evidence to have Scorpio arrested and charged, Callahan is still blocked from seeking justice by existing rules and Scorpio is freed (IMDb, 2013). Callahan decides to break societal justice rules, pursue and kill Scorpio as he believes that society and the justice system have failed.

Callahan makes it his individual responsibility to capture and kill Scorpio thus eradicate a madman from society.In the film, the Killer, detective Li takes matters into his own hands and kills Wong.  Detective Li brings out the concept of reorganization of justice.  He had already captured and subdued Wong.  However, detective Li shoots Wong dead believing that only through death will justice prevail.  Detective Li appears to have been overwhelmed by anger and grief. He is angered at existing systems that are too slow to respond to crime.

Additionally, Li is grieving the loss of a friend, Jong, who was killed by Wong. Wong was a leader of a criminal gang operating in Hong Kong and by eliminating him; inspector Li will have achieved some degree of social order and law in society.Crime is an important topic in society and media has gone to great lengths to demonstrate their perception of crime, criminals and the quest for justice. Unfortunately, society has a tendency to glorify crime and criminal gangs. In films, gangs involved in crime appear to have connections that allow them to thrive regardless of the suffering of a majority of citizens.

The criminal justice system also comes off as a unit that supports criminals. Criminals are perceived as untouchables and always get to be heard when they feel that their rights have been violated (Lenz, 2005). In such a situation, the concept of real justice is overshadowed by crime. Films such as Killers and Dirty Harry are examples of films where detective have found themselves in a dilemma. The detective had to make a choice between upholding the law thus allowing crime to thrive or taking matters into their own hands and eliminating the cause of crime.  The ending of these two films leaves viewers with mixed emotions because on one hand, the officers have violated the law by killing a person. On the other hand, death appears to be the ideal course of justice for the villains who have terrorizing innocent civilians.


The drive for justice as depicted in the films Dirty Harry and the Killers demonstrates the dilemma that law enforcers often face. The society is full of villains and offenders that use the justice system to guarantee their freedom.  Ironically, it is this same justice system that law enforcers are required to use to investigate, capture and prosecute villains. This quest becomes complicated when the justice system favors villains. In the two films, both detective take matters into their own hands and kill the villains as a show of defiance towards the current justice systems. Reviewing the movie, it is easy to claim that justice was served through the death of the villains.  However, it cannot be ignored that the law enforcers violated the law.


Bordwell, D. (2000). Enough to make strong men weep. Planet Hong Kong popular cinema and the art of entertainment

Gledhill & Neale (1999). Contemporary crime. The cinema book

IMDb, (2013). Dirty Harry. Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0097202/

IMDb, (2013). The Killer (1989). Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0097202/

Lenz, T. (2005). Conservatism in American crime films. Florida Atlantic University


Published in Sociology
Friday, 30 May 2014 09:43



Personal Reflections

  1. Research on Prejudice based on Southland
  2. Conclusions and Reflections
  3. Works Cited

The world is a social place (Brown, 2010). People interact and share experiences on various fronts. However, individuals subscribe to specific social groups based on culture, religion, ethnicity, and other elements of common interests. It is because of these differing interests that people become protective of their social groups.Throughout my life, there has always been a talk about the racial form of prejudice. However, my story of prejudice relates to my beliefs. In high-school, I embraced a religion-based value system. This was a problem particularly considering the pro-choice debates.

In line with my value system, I am not pro-choice. During discussions in school, I made my beliefs known to friends and classmates. Consequently, I experienced alienation and ridicule from my high school classmates. Regularly, they would make jokes of my religious views and beliefs. Even though I was a humble student with good mannerisms, they found fault in my beliefs and values. In the modern society, a high proportion of people subscribe to the ideology of social liberalism. I find it hard why these same people who call themselves liberals are intolerant of persons who try to embrace religious lifestyles. Religious prejudice is not exactly what Southland addresses.

The author addresses the issue of race among other themes. However, the manifestations of prejudice are same regardless of whether the difference is religion, race, or political affiliation. In view of my experience, I am particularly keen on addressing prejudice. This reflection research paper explores prejudice utilizing Nina Revoyr’s book Southland and draws conclusions and reflections about social relations in society.Nina Revoyr refers to her novels as love letters to Los Angeles. This is true because she addresses issues that she perceives to hamper expression of love. Racial prejudice is one such issue. The United States suffered a significant impact on race relations.

Americans of Japanese decent were captured and detained in camps immediately after Japan attacked the Pearl Harbor the American ship, in 1941. Americans viewed Japanese-Americans with suspicion. In fact, they regarded them as America’s enemies. Questions of racial prejudice float on Nina Revoyr’s book Southland. Soon after her Japanese grandfather Frank Sakai dies, Jackie Ishida investigates his death and uncovers that three African-American workers had been killed in his grandfather’s shop, but had not been reported. The initial feeling of Jackie was that Sakai may have been responsible for the killings. However, according to Mary, Frank’s widow, Frank adored Curtis, one of the three African-Americans.

Frank even included Curtis in his will. Item number seven on Frank’s will read, “My store, located at 3601 Bryant St., shall go to Curtis Martindale”. Therefore, Jackie wanted to fulfill Mary’s wish of wanting to profile Curtis.Through the actions of Jackie Ishida, the author of the book Southland acknowledges heroes who have the courage to talk about prejudice and help the society deal with social problems. Following Mary’s request, Jackie is ready to go places, discovering reasons for the killings, and seeking justice for the victims. Jackie is a student of law. She knows that Curtis and friends deserved justice and fair treatment as would every other member of the society. She goes to Crenshaw, Frank’s neighborhood, to meet persons who could give important information about the killings. Crenshaw was an all-black town.

There, he meets James Lanier, the youth director at Watts. Lanier was a cousin to the slain Curtis.Lanier informs Jackie that Curtis was employed in Sakai’s shop and that he and his three other neighbors were found in Frank’s meat freezer dead. According to Lanier, authorities did not solve the case. However, everyone believed that Nick Lawson, a white policeman, was responsible for brutally killing the four persons. Jackie and Lanier decide to reopen the case. After a series of investigations, the evidences gathered pointed fingers at Lawson as the murderer. For example, the information collected by Jackie and Lanier revealed that Lawson disliked black people. He would beat Curtis and his friends often.

According to the investigation done, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that racial prejudice was involved.The issue of social prejudice is a topic that is critical and has been subjected to a variety of research studies. According to Nancy Rodenborg and Laura Boisen (2010), Racial and ethnic prejudice is a fact of life, in most parts of the world. In the United States, people live in isolated neighborhoods, send their children to segregated schools, work separately, and worship separately.  In order to be able to understand prejudice and address it in society, it is important to distinguish it from other related elements such as stereotypes.

According to Whitley and Kite (2010), the emotion that a person feels during interactions with other persons, particularly from a different social group, is different from stereotypes. Prejudice is an attitude directed towards persons who are members of a specific social group.Prejudice often results from emotional or gut reaction to a member of a social group or the entire social group (Freer, 2004). People may make an emotional choice to like or dislike a person, without a conscious consideration.

These reactions may be positive or negative. Information from research also indicates that emotional reactions to social groups can come from various sources. Individuals and social groups may perceive that a specific social group threatens their own group. This leads to anxiety, fear, and hostility. It is not only perceived threats that create prejudice. Emotional reactions can also originate from the difference in goals among social groups. In addition, people may feel disgust with stigmatized groups such as lesbians, gays, foreigners, and persons with disabilities. Also, some people can become chronically intolerant of persons and groups condemned by authority figures. The issue of racial prejudice and white identity are terms that often occur in the same sentence. Understanding white identity might shade some light on racial prejudice.

The findings of the American Mosaic Survey indicated that 37 percentage of whites indicated that their racial identity was very important. However, the percentage of nonwhites who held the same view was even higher than for whites at 72%. Although the studies indicate a gap between the racial divide, it is important to note that the racial identity is significant among Americans. This is important because, then, studies are needed to investigate the reasons for the strong racial identity among members of the different racial groups. According to Croll (2007), racial identity is related to the perceived privilege thought to be gained through association with individual race.

Therefore, racial groups and individuals tend to protect their identities because they want to maintain advantages perceived to be gained through racial identity.Revoyr’s presentation of racial prejudice in a way that is not discriminatory to a particular group carries the correct image about the issue. Every group has some element of racial bias. Social groups defend the perceived superiority of their race, religion, culture, political ideology, and other aspects of difference. It is for this reason that the issue of racial prejudice should be addressed from a wider lens so that it is seen as an issue that is perpetrated by members of the white community.

Of course, whites have been the major culprits, in terms of victimization, but the society is approaching a state of balance. This implies that an objective state of mind is required from members of all social groups, in order to ensure that we move forward without the risk of a reversal of the gains achieved. Prejudice is not only about race, but it is also about other issues that define social groups.Research has been done on the various areas prone to prejudice such as class, gender, homophobia, disability, and age (Chillot, 2013).  As history has shown, the definition of prejudice by researchers is evolving. During the 1930s and 1940s principal issues were colonialism and anti-Semitism.

After the Holocaust, racism and anti-Semitism became the major forms of prejudice. According to research, prejudice is founded on the patterns that aid the human mind to think. It is a process that is the basis of prejudgment, and that cannot be changed. The human mind thinks using pre-existing patterns. This is what happens to racial, sexual, and other categories of people. Therefore, social categories are indispensable because they are a part of the human thought. In this respect, social labels are more than approximations.The implication of this theory of the human mind is that it takes time to change the human perception of situations.

It takes a great deal of time to educate social groups, and try to change the pre-existing patterns that drive our thought processes.Prejudice has no boundaries (Guimond et al. 2013). Japanese, Native Americans, Mexicans, African-Americans, Hispanics, and other racial classifications all have prejudice. They despise one racial group or the other on the basis of race. Like Jackie, we should be look at our history and investigate the ways in which we may be culprits of social prejudice. Jackie gains interest in deaths that were not recorded and investigated just because it involved two racial groups.

Our education enlightens us on equality of the human race and the need for justice for all persons. It is important to be independent and to make decisions devoid of the influences of our religion, culture, race, social class, and political affiliations.Southland explores the fragile understandings and the painful misunderstandings that often occur across lines of culture and race. It addresses a grave issue that shapes the social side of a changing society. It is truly a love letter to Los Angeles. The events of the historical period as captured in the book presents the history of the issue of race. The modern context is complex. It is not only about race, it is also about physical disabilities, religious beliefs, and other aspects of individual or group choice.

Therefore, the society must reflect fairness across all these areas.This is the foundation of racist and homophobic attitudes, which are demonstrated through our feelings, behavior, and beliefs about others. Although they may be different, racism, sexism, ageism, and homophobia share a common root in social prejudice. They are manifested in similar ways: beatings, killings, ostracization, and barriers to education, work, public places, and housing. The list of manifestations is not conclusive. Social prejudice occurs because of patterns that have been formed in the human mind. These are the patterns that we must change to influence the society gradually, towards the ideal future.

Brown, R. “Prejudice: It’s Social Psychology”. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2010

Chillot, R. “Do I Make You Uncomfortable?” Psychology Today, 46,6 (2013): 70-77

Croll, P.R. “Modeling Determinants of White Racial Identity: Results from a National Survey”. Social Forces, 86, 2(2007): 613-642

Freer, R. “LA: Race Woman: Charlotta Bass and the Complexities of Black Political Development in Los Angeles”. American Quarterly, 56, 3 (2004): 607-632

Guimond, et al. “Diversity Policy, Social Dominance, and Intergroup Relations: Predicting Prejudice in Changing Social and Political Contexts”. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 104,6 (2013): 941-958

Revoyr, N. “Southland”. New York, NY: Akashic Books, 2003

Rodenborg, N. & Boisen, L.Aversive Racism and Intergroup Contact Theories: Cultural Competence in a Segregated World”. Journal of Social Work Education, 49, 4 (2013): 564-579

Whitley, B. & Kite, M. “The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination”. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010


Published in Sociology
Friday, 30 May 2014 09:40

EMS Case Study

EMS Case Study

Regulatory and Accreditation Standards

In view of the insights provided in the case study, several regulatory and accreditation standards are evident. The response time for patients has been highlighted as a vital accreditation standard in the case study. When the ailing patient called 911 to report her symptoms, the nearest ambulance from a local hospital was dispatched to her residence immediately.The response time was less than thirty minutes, and this was instrumental in the effective management of the patient’s symptoms.

The regulatory standards documented in the case study have strongly accentuated on the extensive significance of responding to patients without any delay. The response time can make the ultimate difference in terms of saving a life and mortality (McConnell, 2011). Precision in data collection is another essential accreditation standard evident in the case study. The medical staff responsible for attending or responding to any patient must uphold high standards of accuracy while collecting data. This involves all details about the patient such as the symptoms, and response to treatment.

Such data must be the main basis of decision making within the framework of treating a patient.The collected data must also be used as the basis for planning the improvement of organizational performance (Reilly, 2010). This is because data ensures that the changes are consistent with actual organizational needs. Continuum in care is another vital regulatory standard evident in the case study. This accreditation standard requires that continuity should be maintained within the treatment framework of a patient even while being transferred from an ambulance to the specialized care facility or emergency unit.

 Strategies and Mechanisms Applied in Meeting the Accreditation Standards

Several mechanisms have been applied in meeting the various accreditation standards outlined in the case study. One of these strategies is to ensure that the response time for patients is minimized as much as possible. After the patient had called 911, it took less than half an hour for ambulance services to reach her. The nearest ambulance was assigned to the patient. This strategy was instrumental in minimizing the time taken to respond. Effective communication among the involved paramedics and other medical staff was another vital strategy that facilitated for the attainment of the regulatory standard of continuum in care (Goldsmith, 2005).

The paramedics were in close contact with cardiologists and other specialists in view of the patient’s condition. Due to effective communications, an excellent continuum in care was maintained during the course of treating the patient (Morrow, 2008). The different medical staff members were well-informed about the significance of maintaining accuracy while collecting data. This strategy catered for precision as the medical staff members were taking data from the patient. The competence levels of the entire medical team at the community hospital and the EMS were exceptional. This was an instrumental strategy towards stabilizing the patient’s condition.

 Appropriateness of the Strategies

The strategies used to meet the regulatory and accreditation standards were appropriate considering the circumstances. One of the most notable aspects that indicate the strategies’ appropriateness is the patient outcome. After the integration of these strategies into the treatment framework, the patient outcome was strongly enhanced. Another aspect that shows the appropriateness of the strategies is the prevention of time wastage as the patient was being treated. An excellent continuum was maintained and this helped in ensuing that the patient’s overall condition was put in control.


Goldsmith, S. B. (2005). Principles of health care management, Sudbury, MA: Jones &    Bartlett Learning

McConnell, C. P. (2011). Management principles for health care professionals, Sudbury,   MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Morrow, C. (2008). Public health administration, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning

Reilly, M. J. (2010). Health care emergency management, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning


Published in Business Studies
Friday, 30 May 2014 09:29

Statistics from the Movie Moneyball

 Statistics from the Movie Moneyball

Statistics in the MovieCritical Analysis

    1. Slugging percentage
    2. On-base percentage
    3. On-base plus slugging
  1. Relating Statistics to the Movie
  2. Works Cited

The movie Moneyball demonstrates the use of three interesting statistics to identify undervalued and overvalued baseball players. These are

Slugging Percentage (SLG) is used to measure the power of a baseball hitter (Rothman, 2012). It is calculated as the total number of bases divided by at-bats. On-base percentage or average (OBP) measures the number of times a baseball player gets on base via walk, hit, or hit by pitch. It is expressed as a proportion of percentage of the total number of plate appearances for a particular player.

On-base plus slugging is calculated as a sum of an individual player’s slugging average and on-base percentage. It measures the ability of a baseball batter to hit, powerfully, and gain home runs, doubles, and triples (James, 2010).Baseball teams do not have the same level of expendable income (Black, 2010). Therefore, the ability to compete with teams with sufficient resources depends on a club’s ability to make shrewd decisions, which rely on statistics (Keller, 2012). In the movie, Billy Keane, the general manager of Oakland Athletics has trouble retaining his best players because the club cannot pay them the expected salary because of the limitation in the Oakland Athletics payroll.

He goes against his scouts on a mission to identify undervalued players from the market of available players. He uses the three statistics to find players for the new season.The movie applies statistical analyses methods such as regression to study the performance of players throughout the season. For example, using the slugging percentage, Keane prefers Scott Hatteberg to Carlos Pena, and so Scott plays at the expense of Pena. Also using his statistical analysis, Jeremy Gambi joins Pena on the list of players on sale, at the end of the season. After starting on a low tone, Oakland Athletics attains a winning streak, winning a majority of matches towards the end of the season.

Black, K. Business Statistics: Contemporary Decision Making. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010

James, B. The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract. New York, NY: Free Press, 2010

Keller, G. Statistics for Management and Economics. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage, 2012

Miller, B. Moneyball, 2011. Retrieved on November 18, 2013, from www.imdb.com/title/tt1210166/

Rothman, S. Sandlot Stats: Learning Statistics with Baseball. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2012


Published in Economics
Friday, 30 May 2014 08:44



Ann Petry’s The Street (1946) is a narrative about enslavement and examines the life of black women characters who are not expected to move to new locations outside their hegemony leading to disastrous results for them. Lutie is suffering after having an experience of the hegemonic practice that prevents her autonomy because she is a black woman. Despite her effort in shifting from a place that hinders change she does not attain a complete transformation as a black woman as seen in the case when she has moved to women centered spaces or the Third Space.

From the perspective of the self-realization process, it is clear that Lutie is facing major disruptions that deter her in attaining self-autonomy. Lutie is faced with challenges such as racism, sexism and discrimination as she struggles to provide for her son’s upbringing as a single mother. She feels trapped and is unable to break the chain of prejudice she encounters on a daily basis. As a black woman Lutie is faced with multiple discriminations since she is one of those at the bottom of the various social matrices, according to Dr. Lecturer Sanchez. The intersections vary and overlap, and this is known as intersectionality (Sanchez, 23).

 Thesis statement

Lutie Johnson has to endure this intersectionality arising from multiple discriminations.

Multiple discriminations

 One of the Discriminations arises, from her effort, to acquire a home at the street. However, she has to deal with the force of wind that is “driving most of people off the street” (Petry, 3), but Lutie has to proceed to search for this home. The way Petry uses the vivid imagery of the wind presents a good illustration of the painful and harrowing nature of the meteorological, inclement phenomenon taking place in November. The wind is personified as a forceful and abusive man who only does what he wants, disregard of other people’s feelings and emotions and with no remorse of his acts and consequences.In the article on white privileges by McIntosh, she states that she is free to speak to a group of powerful male in public without putting her race into question (McIntosh, 4).

This is a privilege that white women enjoy and not Black women. Lutie does not have this privilege since she is a person of color. She has to deal with men who have subjected her to sexism and other forms of discrimination and destroyed her hope in attaining self-realization.Lutie aims for upward mobility to attain self-reliance and independence, but this is a process where she has to deal with aloofness that hinders her from forming coalitions with other women in the neighborhoods. This independence thought also hinders her from having the negative believe that she cannot attain the American dream because she is an African American woman. Lutie has tostruggle with sexism, racism, and capitalism all intertwined, but she has the hope for a better future (Hooks,19).

She recognizes the challenges she has to confront and struggle to fight economic oppressions on a daily basis. Still, “as good-looking brown girls “she has to deal with sexual advances and sexism from African American and white men, alike, who hinder her in her processes of upward mobility. When an African American male attempts to rape her and later forced into a white whorehouse by a white slumlord, she becomes violent fueled by frustration and rage. Petry is the first to present a black woman who murders a black male in her effort to fight her oppression. This violent act still makes Lutie a looser and no one respects her. She is a force to give up the struggle and his son.


This is a story about that represents the actual situation faced by black women in their struggle for upward mobility. Unlike McIntosh who shows that white women are privileged, the case of Lutie is different. She cannot fit the Third Space because of her skin color set by intersectionality arising from multiple discriminations.

 Work cited

Petry, A (1991). The street Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.,

McIntosh, P (1990) White Privilege Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. Wellesley College Center for Research on Women. Print.

Sanchez, Dr/ Lecturer (2007) Sorrow and Meritocracy. Arizona.edu. AFAS. University of Arizona, Tucson.

Hooks, B (1993) Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End P, 1990.


Published in Psychology
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