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Items filtered by date: February 2014

Monday, 10 February 2014 12:18

Death Penalty

Death Penalty


Introduction

Capital punishment is one of the methods that are used to punish criminals in America and other parts of the world. This aspect has developed a lot of debate on whether to abolish it or not in the court system. Capital punishment is a suitable method as many argue because it helps deter criminals in the society. On the other hand, people argue that the method is not fit for punishing offenders simply because some criminal are innocent some were forced to act the way they did while others were of unsound mind when conducting those criminal activities. Death penalty is not an effective way of reducing criminals because if some decides to be a criminal he or she will regardless of the situation. Death penalty should be abolish and develop methods to instill fear to criminals plus educate the society.


Evidence shows that capital punishment is a method that wastes resources of the country. A death sentence squanders the energy and time of the government thus instead of wasting resources, death penalty should be abolished and develop other appropriate approaches for punishing criminals. Evidence shows that the death penalty takes a process so as to avoid any erroneous judgment. The process consumes government resources, which becomes a, waste for the resources could have been used in other activities, (Yorke, 2008).


Death penalty is something inhuman and cruel activity. If capital punishment goals and objectives are based on imposing execution and death sentences to assist condemn the act of violence, putting criminals in death row for the purpose of executing them is something violence. Condemning acts of terrorism mean that one is against imposing death thus death penalty should be abolished as one method of punishing criminals. God is the giver of life meaning that no one has the power to take someone’s life irrespective of the mistakes done thus we should not use capital punishment to criminals, (Finkelstein, 2006).


It should be clear that most people who are in death row are guilty, but it’s because some lack means to question the US criminal justice system. Lack of finances to hire competent lawyers has been part of the many reasons why some people end up in jail for mistakes that they never did. Death penalty should be abolished because it affects those who are unable to cater for lawyer services as compared to those who have money. The criminal justice system denies some criminals right to live because they have no money hence encourage discrimination, (Brodsky, et al., 2013).


Studies show that capital punishment violates the equal protection of individual’s laws. The accused has the right to present legal defense and evidence at any given time. In order to punish an offender, he or she must have exhausted all possible legal means based on the crime committed. Death penalty thus prevents the accused from providing any relevant evidence thereafter in life. Studies indicate that a good number of people who are in death row are guilty of the crime thus to some point death penalty discriminates those who have no money to hire lawyers for their defense, (Yorke, 2008).


Capital punishment is something irreversible which means that it permanently deprives the accused towards due process of law. Once a person is in the death row, he or she can not benefit from the amendments of the law. On the same, person has no opportunity of benefiting from any sort of evidence that might occur from the amendments. There are high chances that innocent people suffer because they have no rights to enjoy benefits that may be found from the evidence of the crime after the law has been amended. Evidence from the study conducted by Bruce Robison (2002) indicated that more than 300 American might have been innocent of the crimes hence escaped death which they had been sentenced. It is clear that capital punishment should be abolished from the methods of punishing criminals, (Brodsky, et al., 2013).


Research shows that a good number of crimes that are committed in the society are crimes that were not planned or premeditated or crimes of passion. Logic explains that if a crime was as a result of anger from something then that person at that moment had no thoughts to make any calculations on the impacts of the situation. Death penalty should be abolished so as to give room for such people to explain what could have made them take such an action, (Finkelstein, 2006).


Conclusion

In summing up, it is with no doubts that criminal activities have become part of the human daily activities. Death penalty should not be encouraged in our criminal justice system because no one is allowed to take life which has been given by God. The evidence provided by the above arguments indicates that the death penalty is something that should not be practiced in the society because to some point it discriminate those who are poor and are unable to access lawyer’s services.


Reference:

Brodsky, S. L., Neal, T. S., & Jones, M. A. (2013). A Reasoned Argument Against Banning Psychologists' Involvement in Death Penalty Cases. Ethics & Behavior, 23(1), 62-66. doi:10.1080/10508422.2013.757954

Finkelstein, C. (2006). A Contractarian Argument against the Death Penalty. New York University Law Review, 81(4), 1283-1330

Yorke, J. (2008). Against the Death Penalty: International Initiatives and Implications: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd


Published in Social Sciences
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:47

Data Analysis

Data Analysis


The quantitative research approach relies on statistical tools to analyze data. These statistical tools are classified into two broad categories; descriptive and inferential tools. Descriptive tools are used to define the characteristic of a given set of data (Kon, 2009). They assist the researcher to identify patterns and trends thus gaining insight into the data set. These descriptive tools include; percentages, frequencies, mean, median, standard deviation, range and mode. The appropriateness of a given tool is determined by the intention of the study (Kon, 2009).


The target of this exercise is to explore impacts of emotional disturbance on the quality of learning of students suffering from this condition. Thus, the study shade more light concerning the disease and its preferences. The researcher will utilize descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage to describe the prevalence of the condition and rate of the behavior. The study will also make use the mean to describe the occurrence of this condition.


Inferential statistical tools are used to define the relationship between variables (Elst, 2012). These tools assist the researcher to determine whether there is a relationship between variables. They also assist the researcher to determine the type of relationship between variable, whether direct or inverse. The tools also assist the researcher to determine whether the relationship between variables is significant. Examples of inferential tools include; cross tabulation, chi-square, t-test, regression analysis and many others.


The process of selecting the inferential tool will be determined by the hypothesis formulated in the study (Elst, 2012). For instance, one of the issues that the researcher may seek to explore is that of academic performance and emotional disturbance. The hypothesis may state; “students with emotional disturbance exhibit low scores in exams that children without the condition”. The researcher may use regression analysis to explore this relationship Regression analysis examines effects of changing the independent variable on the dependent variable.


References

Elst H. (2012). Foundation of Inferential and Descriptive Statistics. June 13, 2013. http://www.mth.uct.ac.za/~henk/Stats.pdf

Kon K. (2009). Introduction to Statistics. June 13, 2013.

http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/LaTeX/Examples/statistics_firstfive.pdf


Monday, 10 February 2014 11:38

Antibiotic Resistant

Antibiotic Resistant


Diarrhea is the main side effect of antibiotic therapies.  Antibiotic associated diarrhea can be caused in different ways. One of the ways is as a result of destruction of enteric normal flora caused by antibiotic therapy leading to growth of resistant pathogens, and functional disorders of the intestinal.   Clostridium diffecile is one the pathogenic bacteria that develop from administration of antibiotics.  Clostridium difficiles is anaerobic bacteria that produce two toxins namely; Toxin A and B, and toxin C and D.   Clostridium is associated with the highest number of AAD.  Metronidazole is one of the preeminent treatments for treating C. difficile infections.  Other conventional treatment of AAD includes administration of oral Vancomycin and metronidazole. 


However, there is growing resistant to these treatment regimes.  The purpose of this study was to determine drug resistance profile against conventional administrative drugs such as metronidazole. The study was conducted in Tehran where 95 isolates of C. difficile were isolated from hospitalized patients.  The specimens were cultured differently using yeast extract broth and methanol. The specimen were maintained for one week and later assessed for their susceptibility to antibiotics.    Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method.   The initial susceptibility was analyzed against broad spectrum antibiotics that included amikacin, Imipenem, metronidazole, ceftazidine and ciprofloxacin.


The susceptibility test proposed the existence of resistance in the majority of the pathogens included in the study. Conventional administrative drugs such as ceftazidine (96%), amikacin (94%), Imipenem (85%) and ciprofloxacin (68%) reported high frequency of resistance. In metronidazole was identified to have an inhibition zone, which was considered as an initial indicator of susceptibility to antibiotics.   The results also indicate that 12% of the isolates were resistant to at least 2 antibiotics while 3% were resistant to at least 3 antibiotics. 54 isolates were resistant to amikacin, Imipenem, ceftazidine and ciprofloxacin. The resistance to antibiotic was common across gender, age and patient outcome.


Multidrug-resistant organisms are a huge challenge in most healthcare institutions.  Assessment of population or patient at risks of multidrug-resistant organisms’ infection is crucial before the determination of the appropriate antibiotic regime to use.


Therefore, antibiotics are the most important factors in the acquisition of AAD.  These antibiotics include broad spectrum beta lactams, cephalosporin, chindamycin and fluoroquinolones.  One of the best strategies of treating AAD includes stopping the causative antibiotic and commencing treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin.  Therefore, emergence of resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin is a huge concern worldwide.  However, resistance to metronidazole varies country wise and in different times.  Fluoroquinolones are a large family of broad spectrum antibiotics and are widely associated with C. difficile infections.  Resistant to Ciprofloxacin is also a worrying trend because ciprofloxacin is used in treatment of enteric pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., and Shigella spp.  The antibiotic is also used in treatment of skin, lungs, bones and joint infections. 


Resistant to ciprofloxacin is not isolated to Iran only. It is wide spread to other countries such island and Netherlands.   The resistant o ciprofloxacin is attributed to the usage often antibiotic inappropriately to treat diverse types of diseases. The result of the study also indicates that there is a high resistant rate among ceftazidine, which is the third generation cephalosporin.  The resistant is associated with the usage of this antibiotic to treat severe human infections.  Imipenem was relatively high, not only, in Iran, but also in other countries such as Sweden. Imipenem resistant is closely associated with bowel colonization of other resistant bacteria and transmission of genetic markers.   The study also reported a high resistant to amikacin, which is used for treatment of different bacterial infections.  However, the study found effectiveness of metronidazole in fighting C. difficile in Iran.  


The development of antibiotics resistance within healthcare facilities is of particular interest.   High selective pressure on bacteria from constant bacteria use in susceptible population leads to more rapid development of resistance genes and DNA transfer in hospitals.


In order to contain the development and consequences of antibiotic infections,   healthcare providers should implement the federal government blue print (Health Action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance).   The blue print identifies four areas of action. The areas include surveillance, control, research and prevention.  The role of healthcare professionals in controlling development of microbial resistance includes promoting appropriate use of antibiotics and preventing transmission of infections.  Healthcare providers should desist from prescribing antibiotics for acute infections, which offer no much benefit to the infected person.  They should promote optimal antibiotic use by altering behavioral incentives such that individuals consider the wider costs of consuming antibiotics.  Thorough hospital assessment of patient during admission for infections risks factor is one of the strategies that should be deployed in hospital set to reduce resistant infections.   It is crucial to take medication history to know whether they have been on any antibiotic treatment.   Antibiotic therapy increases the development of drug resistant during consequent treatment therapies. 


References

Darbouy et al (2013). Emergence of multidrug resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of clostridium difficile as a risk factor in occurrence of antibiotic associated diarrhea. HealthMED. Vol 7, issue 3. 2013.


Published in Nursing
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:29

Organizational Culture: Zappos Case Study

Organizational Culture: Zappos Case Study


Introduction

            Zappo.com is an organization, which has been named one of the best places to work.  This company is known to have many job many applicants since it has a good working environment for the employees; it offers free vending machine food, and free lunches.  However, Zappos is stringent in selecting job applicants since employees need to fit into the specified conditions of the company.  Therefore, only those applicants who match the corporate values are employed having been put through a tough test.  In fact, a Zippos employee must be creative, adventurous, open-minded, and humble.  This paper, therefore, is an analysis of Zappo.com’s values that pertains to employees.


  Culture forms the identity of an individual. It is a set of activities that an individual is used to, and; therefore, forms the identity of a person.  Zappos is an organization, which is known to conduct an interview on the job applicants that demonstrate the core values.  However, it is difficult to ask questions that measure the values of a person because values are factors that cannot be fully demonstrated within a short time period, but requires a long term stay with the subject individual. Interviews, therefore, cannot effectively measure a person’s values because they only they only involve a short interaction with an individual, and they are also subject to factors such as pretence, and level of preparedness.  However, the best way in, which values can be tested, is by seeking background information about the history of the prospective interviewee, for example, from the former employment or by conducting an analysis through observations as he/she practically conducts his activities in the new workplace.


 Formal feedback on the operation of an organization’s activities is an important aspect of communication. This is because it enables the employees and other individuals that are interested in the organization’s activities to have a clear formula of undertaking the activities of an organization.  Jo related task performance should be communicated to the employees to enable them understand their tasks at work, how to conduct such tasks, and the acceptable results.  Therefore, in a case whereby an organization fails to provide a formal feedback on job related task performance, it means that the employees of the organization will fail to identify their areas of duties, fail to accomplish a given task or even perform poorly in a given task.  Therefore, Zippos will generally perform poorly if it fails to provide a formal feedback for the task performance.


            An employee is said to fit into an organization culture if he/she can meet the organization’s expectations, and even exceed the given expectations.  Zippo.com expects the employees to be adventurous, open-minded, creative, and humble.  The employees in this company are also expected to be punctual, have the technical ability and relevant experience, and also be team players, among other expectations.  Therefore, employees who fit the culture of this organization will be identified overtime by their ability to display the acceptable behavior.  On the contrary, employees who do not fit Zappos’ culture will also be easily identified as they display the acceptable behaviors and they will be uncreative, timid minded, non-adventurous, and lack humility.  Therefore, appropriate and inappropriate employees will be noticed over time.


Reference

Inkling, (2013). Zappos Case Study. Retrieved From, https://www.inkling.com/read/organizational-behavior-colquitt-3rd/chapter-16/case-zappos On June 15, 2013.


Published in Business Studies
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:25

PepsiCo

 

PepsiCo


According to Indra Nooyi, her goal is to build a healthy product line which is likely to be almost three times the current sales of PepsiCo products. This is because of the shift of the market towards healthier eating and shifting the company towards this direction is a moral imperative. As a shareholder of this company, I would support the vision of India Nooyi because people are now more focused on health and wellness. Therefore, this vision will result to better sales for the company.


However, I would advise the company to make sure that it focuses on advertising its products so that people can be informed about the benefits of buying healthy products. This is a vision that would encourage me to want to invest in the company because it means more success for the company and also bettering the health of people. Due to the fact that investors normally care about what is ahead, Nooyi has promised that the sales of the company are likely to increase, and this gives me confidence that, with this new vision, it is better to invest in the company. According to the mathematics by Nooyi, the profits are expected to increase in the future and in order for the profits to increase, PepsiCo has to change to healthier products. This is a vision that shows a win-win for investors and also the company and the customers.


 

It is not possible for a leader to try to do what Indra is trying to do to a company if she does not have referent power that she possesses. Indra is a leader who has referent power as she is able to influence the followers and also investors because of respect, loyalty, friendship, affection, admiration, and the desire to gain approval. Nooyi is a leader who has the power of influencing investor to doing something that appears to be possible. She gives the followers energy to try something with the trust that it will not fail.


A good leader should never back from a challenge. According to Nooyi, she believe that the harder the business is the bigger the turnaround; therefore, a person should always go ahead and believe that they can accomplish anything. Referent power is very important in organizational leadership because it is all about influence and collaboration rather than control and command. Indra has been able to influence her workers to work towards improving the company, and they have achieved, and she believes that it is achievable, for PepsiCo to focus on environmental, human, and talent sustainability. With this idea in mind, Nooyi will be able to influence investors so that they can invest more in the company. Therefore, a leader who does not have this power cannot attempt to do what Nooyi is doing to the company.


 

This is an approach that is sustainable for the company if Nooyi decides to leave the company. This is because she has already established a good platform and his followers are bound to work towards making it better. The workers in PepsiCo have been focused on health and wellness which will be hard for them to ignore.  Cabinet members should be good leaders with all the qualities of leadership. Therefore for Nooyi to be successful, she needs to have courage, strategic planning, focus, and vision.


Published in Business Studies
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:22

Emotional Intelligence and Ability

Emotional Intelligence and Ability


 Introduction

            Johnson& Johnson is a highly reputable company for being remarkable.  It manufactures many leading products in the market, and it also has a consistent financial performance.   However, this company had, unfortunately, taken some serious hits, for example, in 2010 when it dealt with 11 major recalls in the US. Secondly, some major recalls of eye care products also emerged from Europe and Asia, and ultimately, three of Jonson & Johnson manufacturing plants were subjected to federal oversight.  In an effort to restore the reputation, this company took some highly visible and very expensive steps.  It also took some of the less visible steps to address its challenges; therefore, it made an effort to assess the ability that the managers possessed.   This paper, therefore, is an analysis of assessment of the management ability as done by the Johnson & Johnson Company.


Emotional Intelligence

 Indeed, there was a difference in emotional intelligence among the high performing and the average performing managers at Johnson & Johnson.  Emotional intelligence refers to the ability of an individual to recognize and understand his/her emotions and that of others.  In fact, emotions affect every aspects of an individual life, and a person who has an excellent control of his/her emotions is professionally sufficient to adequately address every problem in a logical way. Therefore, professional who know how to adequately control their emotions normally perform highly compared to those who are poor in controlling their emotions.  Therefore, there was a difference in emotional intelligence among the high performing managers and the average performing managers at Johnson & Johnson since emotional intelligence detects the level of performance of a manager.


The facets of emotional intelligence that are most applicable in this case are social awareness and relationship management. Through social awareness, a manager can be able to understand the needs, concerns, and the emotions of other people, giving him/her to feel socially comfortable, and recognize the dynamics that exist in a group.  Relationship management, on the other hand, will also help a manager to communicate clearly, develop and maintain good relationships, influence other as they work in a team, and to manage conflicts effectively.  The least applicable facet is self-awareness because it just emphasizes on personal emotions, therefore, does not apply to an organization setup.


Johnson & Johnson implemented a program whereby new employees would be evaluated to determine their emotional intelligence, performance, as well as promotional potential.  This is an effective program because the employees who will be employed will have a high level of intelligence. This company also invested in educational programs in an effort to nature the emotional intelligence of its employees, a program, which is less effective because it is always difficult to emotionally nature an individual who have been used to a certain habit. Ability is a major idea that needs to be put into consideration for job performance. This is because it leads to innovation and excellent performance.  However, some abilities should not be considered because it may lead to bias of employees because some can be talented and even some may be performing technical activities than others who excel in simple activities.


            Employees’ emotional intelligence is an important aspect, and this factor may help Johnson & Johnson Company.  This is because emotionally intelligent employees are able to lead and motivate others to perform excellently.  Therefore, several errors that may compromise the quality of the Jonson & Johnson products will be avoided leading to reduction in the amount of products being recalled.  Technical abilities should also be considered in section of the employee team at the Johnson & Johnson Company. This is because excellent technical skills are needed for quality control.


Reference

Inkling, (2013). Case: Johnson and Johnson. Retrieved From, https://www.inkling.com/read/organizational-behavior-colquitt-3rd/chapter-10/case-johnson--johnson On June 11, 2013


Published in Business Studies
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:17

The Joint Commission: Core Measures

The Joint Commission: Core Measures


The Joint commission outlined the core measures that can be utilized in health care facilities to improve the quality of care. Nurses should utilize the core measures to determine the appropriate action to undertake when faced with different medical situations. Nurses are bound to face different patients manifesting different symptoms. The core measure present strategies and actions that patients can undertake when faced with patients with pneumonia, those in perinatal care and well as those who have suffered heart failure. The core measures also direct nurses on surgical care improvement strategies. The core measures give pre and post operative strategies aimed at ensuring that the patient health is safeguarded. For instance, the rising number of surgical site infections is a call to nurses to minimize the risk of infections (The Joint Commission, 2013). Nurses should familiarize themselves with the core measures of handling patient before and after surgery. For instance, any shaving required prior to a surgical procedure must be done by clipping and not shaving.


The core measures also familiarize nurse with essential procedural measures that must be included during the discharge of a patient. For instance, the patient must be provided with a detailed written instruction of how to take his medication, and dietary instructions if there is a need to do so. It is the duty of the nurse to ensure that patients are discharged from the hospital with the right medical information, the right information on their medical dosage and the time they should take the medication. It is the duty of nurses to make certain that patients are served and that they received quality care, when they visit the health care facilities. The Joint Commission also strives to improve the delivery of health care services (The Joint Commission, 2013).  The core measures as provided by the joint commission must be integrated into nursing practice.


Reference

The Joint Commission, (2013). Core measures. Retrieved from

http://www.jointcommission.org/core_measure_sets.aspx


Published in Nursing
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:08

Socioeconomic Status

Socioeconomic Status


Introduction

Improper food choices do not provide a sufficient justification for the occurrence of Type II diabetes in all age categories of the American population for two reasons: it does not account for the increasing incidence of type II diabetes among infants and children and does not explain why the disease is varied in its prevalence across the racial and gender divide. Instead, in addition to access to sufficient, nutrition information on healthy food choices, therapeutic actions should focus on the socioeconomic and genetic reasons which results in overweight and obesity, which are the precursors for type II diabetes.


This research paper, therefore, seeks to investigate the significance of the role of nutrition in preventing and treating type II diabetes, and the potential significance of the consideration of genetic and socio-economic factors in the incidence and potential therapeutic interventions for type II diabetes.


Statement of the Problem

Today, Type II Diabetes affects close to 250 million people worldwide, 27 million in the U.S. alone (Lee, 2011). The global incidence of type II Diabetes is constantly rising in epidemic proportions. One in three babies born today will develop diabetes with the risk of consequent fatal complications, at some stage in their later lives. Type II Diabetes plays a pernicious role in the premature occurrence of heart disease, amputations, blindness, vascular disease, and other physical impairments. Poor nutrition or, in simple terms, improper food choices is the recognized cause of Type II Diabetes (Miller, Gutshcall, & Mitchell, 2009). In this respect, there has been a misconception by some scholars that Americans choose to be overweight and obese, precursors for diabetes.


Environmental, genetic, socio-economic, and behavioral factors can all cause overweight and obesity, which are the factors that predispose people to diabetes. Although obesity is a public health epidemic for Americans of all ages, the occurrence, prevalence, and severity of overweight and obesity is high for population groups with low socioeconomic status, and among women, and ethnic minority groups, particularly African Americans. Overweight and obesity are the principal predisposing factors for Type II diabetes. Two-thirds of members of the American population are either overweight or obese. There is a direct link between overweight, obesity, and diabetes. In order to gain knowledge of diabetes mellitus, the effect of overweight and obesity must be examined. In a significant number of cases, diabetes is as a result of poorly managed weight. Treatment of Type II Diabetes depends on the correct diagnosis of the cause and consideration of the causes in the prevention and treatment. Therefore, focusing only on nutrition does not provide comprehensive blanket prevention and therapeutic strategies.


First, efforts to prevent and treat diabetes based on the focus on food choices does not offer a solution relevant to children as young as 12 months of age who are also significantly affected type II diabetes. According to Lee et al. (2011), advancing nutrition education of the public and addressing socioeconomic differences such as income disparities have an inverse relationship with diabetes. Poor financial and educational resources are associated with risky health behaviors, inadequate social support, and adverse environmental and physical exposures. These include inadequate housing, transportation, and dietary options that have high potential for weight gain due to the associated dyslipidemia and chronic psychological stress. Specifically, inadequate transportation and housing options may be associated with that are unsafe, and that include lack of parks and sidewalks and high levels of violence. These are factors that discourage participation of individuals in recreational physical activity. According to experimental evidence from the research done on Type II Diabetes, the biological level of these experiences that occur throughout the lifespan of persons exposed to these conditions can contribute to the development of complications related to diabetes, including excessive inflammation, insulin resistance, and improper regulation of the pituitary axis of the hypothalamus.


Secondly, food choices do not explain why type II diabetes affects members of one race and gender more than the other. It has become increasingly evident that a person’s genetic makeup is a significant determinant factor of the course of their future medical history and longevity of life (O’Rahilly, Barroso, & Wareham, 2005). In the 21st century, it is possible, through research evidences, to assess the potential parents for hidden genetic defects in their unborn offspring, to alter a person’s genetic profile, and potentially to treat genetically induced conditions by employing gene therapy. Therefore, gene therapy provides a potential means to treat Type II Diabetes.


References

Lee, T. et al. (2011) “Socioeconomic status and incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Data from the Women’s Health Study” PLoS One, 6(12): e27670

Miller, C, Gutshcall, M, Mitchell, D (2009) “Change in food choices following a glycemic load intervention in adults with Type II Diabetes: Research and Professional Brief” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2): 319-324

O’Rahilly, S, Barroso, I., and Wareham, N. (2005) “Genetic factors in Type II Diabetes: The end of the beginning?” Science, 305(2005): 370-373


Published in Economics
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:03

Culture in 1960

Culture in 1960


In American history, the period between 1945 and 1964 was an era of economic growth, war, and prosperity that saw the victory of World War II confronting each other in the cold war. Counterculture is a term which is used in describing a cultural group whose norms and values are at odds with those of the social majority. This is a term that was being used in referring to youth rebellion, which swept the western society in 1960s and in early 1970s. Counterculture in 1960s was populated by people who were known as the hippies, and it arose in United States as a whole movement that was opposed to the Vietnam War[1]. The young people got engaged in various activities of revolt which included using drugs, participating in riots, demonstrations, and also protesting. This is an atmosphere that was directly related to the involvement of US in Vietnam.


Most of the hippies used drugs and also sold the drugs and considered it as a shortcut to reality. The young people used drugs as a means to say they are not part of the system that has been created and messed up. Some of the drugs that were used by these people include mescaline, peyote, marijuana, and LSD. Stimulants and sedatives were also used. The hippies formed communes to live outside of the established system. The aspect of counterculture did reject active involvement in politics with the mainstream. Members of the hippie movement grew older, and they moderated their views and lives and counterculture in 1960 was at some extent absorbed by the mainstream that left a lasting impact on lifestyle, morality, and fashion. Counterculture movement did divide the country where some American thought of the attributes as Americans ideal of free speech, equality, pursuit of happiness, and world peace[2]. However, some thought of the movement as a reflection of self indulgent, unpatriotic, pointlessly rebellious, and assault on the traditional moral order of America.


The movement of counterculture was a reaction against the conservative social norms in 1950s. Sometimes it is discussed as the inheritor of the beat generation. The youth rebellion originated from the college campuses. One example is the Free Speech Movement in university of California where socially privileged students started to identify as having interests as a class which was at odds with the practices and interests of the university and its sponsors. In the 60s, the Vietnam War became a high profile object of criticism and the younger generation wished to create a new and different society gained momentum[3]. Most of the young people opposed US involvement in the war and there were several organizations that had developed during this time and the young people who opposed the war could express themselves through such groups. Some of the organizations were Student for a Democratic Society (SDC) and the Student nonviolent Coordinating Committee[4].


These are organizations that wanted the government to do some major changes in the way things were being done. SDC was an organization with college students who believed in drastic political views. These students opposed the presence of benevolence virtue, and religion which did exist in the American society. This organization used students’ strikes, propaganda, and mass demonstration as a strategy to express their left beliefs. In the year 1965, SDC started to be militant about the issue that relates to Vietnam like drafting of the students[5]. This is a time when there were many demonstrations taking place in US. These are demonstrations that were conducted in protest of the involvement of US in Vietnam Way. At the start, it was peaceful, but it turned out to be riots where the police started to overreact, and they used violence against the protestors.


This is something that resulted to new theories about culture and personal identity, and also the traditional non western ideas emerged with particular regard on religion, spiritual enlightenment, and social organization. Most the youths at this period were educated as compared with the earlier periods that lead to an interest in political philosophies. Therefore, on the youth culture view of the phenomenon, all sorts of outlook and political philosophy except the social conservatism can be expected to flourish. With the era capacity for media and direct communication, it is enough that some members of the older generation can be influenced by and contribute to the social current in the society.


During this period, the new cultural forms, which were being perceived to be old, emerged that include pop music of the Beatles, and it rapidly evolved to reflect and shape the culture of the youths with emphasis on change and implementation. The underground newspapers sprang up in most of the college towns and cities which served to communicate and define the range of phenomena which defined counterculture approaches to music, cinema, and art and the uninhibited indulgence in drugs and sex as a symbol of freedom[6]. The occurrence of counterculture in 1960 has made America be far much ecologically conscious than it was years back. The work place was transformed with job sharing, e commuting, and flex time that contrast with the corporate culture of 1950.


The sexual ethics in America has undergone revolutionary change whereby in 1963 it was illegal to use contraceptive, but in 2009, condoms could be seen to being distributed in schools. According to 2008 report on census, it was reported to having 6.4 million unmarried heterosexual couples who were living together while, during 1980, there were less than one million[7]. The attitude towards drug use has also softened whereby in 1975, a president’s son admitted of having used marijuana which was stormed by the public, but when Barack Obama acknowledged of having used cocaine nothing happened. Counterculture continues to have an influence on art, music, social movement, and the society. The past 1973 mainstream society is a hybrid of the 1960 counterculture and establishment.


Conclusion

 The young Americans in 1960 had an influence on rebellion taking place during the involvement of United States in Vietnam War. The results included the use of drugs violent protest, and involvement in the student organizations. Because of these factors, the events of 1960 have carried on to the present day. Counterculture of the 1962 has grown to be dominant expression in an entire generation. Its images have lasted longer, and the styles still persist much longer, more than half century, the music of that time is still performed, the styles are being imitated, and the slogans continue to draw a cheer. The events of the 60s are still with is where profound change can be observed on how people think, live, and work.


Reference

Perone, J (2004). Music of the counterculture Greenwood Publishing Group

Doyle, M & Braustein, P (2002). Imagine nation Taylor & Francis Group

Gair, C (2007). The American counterculture Edinburgh University Press


[1] Perone, J (2004). Music of the countearculture Greenwood Publishing Group

[2] Perone, J (2004)

[3] Doyle, M & Braustein, P (2002). Imagine nation Taylor & Francis Group

[4] Doyle, M & Braustein, P (2002)

[5] Gair, C (2007). The American counterculture Edinburgh University Press

[6] Doyle, M & Braustein, P (2002). Imagine nation Taylor & Francis Group

[7] Gair, C (2007). The American counterculture Edinburgh University Press


Published in History
Monday, 10 February 2014 11:00

In Praise of Languages

In Praise of Languages


The author talks about the concept of bilingualism and how it has become an international concern in the society. Based on the current technology, the need to learn the second language is not necessary for the American college students. This is because English have spread globally and the improvement of translation technology makes it easy for learners to get anything they want plus relate with other people in the international level without any challenges. Although the author claims that there is no need for the second language, he points out some arguments in favor of languages such as economic importance and cognitive flexibility or development among others.


The author of this article has clearly anticipated the reader concerns and counter claims. In the article, the author has started by defining the relevance of the second language to the learners. This gives the reader on the relevance of a second language to those in the learning environment. The author then demonstrates on how technology has developed in the current global world and how it has made it easy for the learners in life. Also, he points out that English has spread globally plus learners only need translators to get the meaning of what they want to know from another language. In refuting this claim, the author argues that different cultures use different styles of language in defining their concepts thus translators are not the solution to learners thus they should go the second language. Another thing he adds is that second language increases the employment opportunity of learners.


 

Although taking a second language increases chances on an individual’s employment opportunity, the question and challenge we need to ask is how many languages we need to learn so as to secure our everyday activities. The best thing we need to do is to use the opportunity we have in translating what we need in life. If we think about the concept of language this means that we need to learn all the languages in the world something that is difficult. Another thing is that someone might mix the leant languages and affect the target results.


Based on the author’s claim, I think I agree with his stand on the acquisition of second language by learners. This helps someone learn about other cultures hence increase the cognitive flexibility and development of their skills. Fluency does not necessary matter for bilingualism what matters is the development of prioritization, multitasking, and cognitive skills. Since people have different ways of thinking based on their language, acquisition of a second language will help in the deconstruction of linguistic world and create an environment where someone gets to known a lot as compared to the use of translators in arriving at certain clams.


Outline

Learning a second language is relevant

It helps in the internationalization of acquiring education

Economic importance: Diplomacy, national security, and global competitiveness

Second language helps in cognitive flexibility and development

Relevant for international research

Development of intercultural competence and development of cross cultural capability for domestic students

Evidence shows that monolinguals are incapable of intercultural competence thus they do not perform well as compared to those with a second language

Public relation offensive


Reference:

Guest Writer. (2012). In Praise of Languages for Internationalization. Retrieved from, http://chronicle.com/blogs/worldwise/in-praise-of-languages-for-internationalization/29132, on June 8, 2013


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