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Items filtered by date: February 2014

Tuesday, 18 February 2014 08:02

Richmond Monument Avenue

 Richmond Monument Avenue

The Richard Monument Avenue is the only grand residential boulevard, in the nation, which has a great deal of monuments of unique monuments that have survived without alteration up to the present day.  According to National Park Service (2013), Monument Avenue as a close similarity with Jackson Ward for being one of the two national historical landmark districts found in the city of Richmond.  National Park Service indicates that the Monument Avenue Historical District is nationally significant because of its architecture, and it also serves as an example of city planning.

Pertaining to the physical appearance of the Monument Avenue Historical District, this   historical site has a significantly pleasing physical appearance with lined trees, which are extending for about five miles into Henrico County from inner city Richmond westward.  In fact, the avenue obtained its name from a series of the monumental statutes making its major intersections and generally constituting   the center of traffic circles.  The monument avenue was Richmond’s ceremonial parade route for many years, and a good number of great personalities, which include March Foch, Winston Churchill, Queen Elizabeth, Commander Richard Evelyn Byrd, and General Eisenhower, have journeyed along this avenue to the mansion of the governor.  The Monument Avenue District also contains some of the finest residences in the city, and; therefore continues to be a fashionable neighborhood for the elite of Richmond.

The original aim of creation of abroad avenue in Richmond was to honor confederate heroes, an idea, which appeared on an 1888 plat, which shows the subdivision of the Allen Estate and Lombardy Streets.   Perhaps, in the 1890, Jean Antoine Mercie unveiled the great equestrian statue of Robert E. Lee, which became the first major element on the Monument Avenue.  Afterwards, this unique avenue became the post popular and preferable place to erect to erect statues for the heroes of the civil war.  In fact, the Lee monument is largest, and the oldest statues on the Monument Avenue, and it has a 12 ton, 21 inch bronze, which sits on a 40 inch high granite pedestal as designed by  the French architect, Paul Pujot.

Before, 1903, there were no houses that appeared  on the  Richmond  Monument Avenue,  however, in 1906,  the  City Council  of Richmond  gave approval for the avenue to be extended   from  the  Allison Street; original terminus, west to  Boulevard.  When the traffic lanes of the Monument Avenue were paved in 1907, using their unique asphalt paving blocks, it made the street be one of the most fashionable places to live in Richmond.  In 1907, Frederick Moynihan, a local sculptor unveiled James Ewell Brown’s equestrian monument, located in the center of Stuart Circle, and the circle is fronted by several large historical buildings, which include the Staurt Circle Hospital,  the  Staurt  Court apartment building,  St. John’s United Church of Christ, and  the first English Evangelical Lutheran Church.  In June 1907, the Jefferson Davis Monument, which was designed by Richmond architect named William C. Noland and sculptor Edward Valentine, was erected at the intersection of Davis and Monument Avenues.   

The Jefferson Davis monument features the  13  Doric  columns that represented the  11 southern states  seceded  from  the union  including the  two  states that sent  delegates  to the confederate congress.  The Thomas Jonathan Jackson statue was unveiled at the Boulevard and Monument Avenue in 1919, and the Matthew Fontaine Maury Monument at Belmont Street and Monument Avenue was made public in 1929.  The Arthur Ashe Statue, which is located at the intersection of the Rosemead Road and Monument Avenue, forms the sixth and the last statue on last the block of the historical district.  The Arthur Ashe Statue was dedicated to the native humanitarian, athlete, and scholar of Richmond; Ashe, in 1996, during his birthday an idea, which drew several spectators (Monument House, 2013).

The Monument Avenue has since remained a historical site signified by a splendid series of architecturally designed apartment buildings and dignified town houses, which; therefore, reflects the achievements of the many prominent  architects of those times.  Perhaps, the various types of housing along the avenue clearly demonstrated the diversity of means and taste and the vitality of urban living.

In addition to the historical architectural monuments, Monument Avenue also has numerous apartment buildings exhibiting great architectural designs.  The district is also mostly composed of institutional buildings, houses, primarily churches, which visually dominate portions of Monument Avenue, and most often they are designed in the Classical Revival styles or the Gothic, generally located on spacious sites whereby they create a great architectural impact on the surrounding residential neighborhood.

Monument Avenue is, therefore, one of the most beautiful boulevards, and it is the only street, in the United States, which serve as a National Historical Landmark.  This historical site, which was built originally built as an extension of the Franklin Street toward the Lee monument,   runs through the Richmond historic Fan District.   It has monuments of historical personalities in the United States, and; therefore, will remain as a great historical site, in the United States.

Work Cited

National Park Service, (2013). Monument Avenue Historical District. Retrieved From, http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/richmond/MonumentAveHD.html On July 14, 2013.

Monument House, (2013). Al1, Historical Richmond. Retrieved From, http://www.monumenthouse.com/richmond/monument/ On July 15, 2013.

Published in Education
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 08:00

Organizational Assessment

Organizational Assessment

            Wellstar is a nonprofit organization that views its older employees as highly valuable assets and it has ensured that it has developed strategies to keep its enormous wealth of talent. The organization is honored as being the best employers of workers over fifty. Mandy is the manager at my unit and she have nursing management responsibilities of the nursing unit. Mandy normally report to the service director. Becky tends to know a lot about the nursing unit, and she has been able to acquire this knowledge through experience as she has been working in the unit for over five years. The environment in my unit is warm and comfortable as it offers patients with a nice place to be with soft music, hardwood and clean floors. Based on the unit level, them policy is normally determined by the manager of the unit and on them organizational level, the managing director of the company is responsible of determining policy.

The managers in collaboration with the unit members in the unit are normally involved in solving problems in the unit. The nurse to patient ratio in the organization is 1:4 which is not fixed because it depends with the number of patients in the unit. The staffing level in my unit is normally determined based on experience and also the patients in the units. What needs to be improved is the answering call light because there appears to be a slow response in the nursing station which has a negative impact on the patients.  Nurses need to be encouraged to ensure that they respond to light calls so that to reduce the injurious fall rates in the unit. There is a shared governance program that allows the nursing staff to solve problems and decision that affects their nursing practice. In the program accountable and empowered professional nurses normally assure quality nursing care.


“Wellstar” retrieved from http://wellstar.org/pages/default.aspx accessed on 14th July 2013

Published in Management
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:56

Transition for New Nurses

Transition for New Nurses

             Transition for newly graduate nurse’s experience to professional practice consists of diverse experiences consisting of personal and professional changes. There are several strategies that new nurses can implement so as to have an easy time moving to professional practice (Duchscher, 2008). The first strategy involves the acceptance of change. New nurses joining the professional need to realize that they have moved from theoretical learning and are joined the professional dimension where action is mandatory. However, the process of learning continues as new nurses acquire hands-on experience by working side-by-side with professional nurses. Performance will also be mandatory as it is only through performance that the new nurse will acquire the ideal skills (Duchscher, 2008). New nurses must also be willing to make enquiries and questions in case they are unsure of a medical action. It is by seeking clarification that the new nurse acquires new insights and knowledge.

Self care practices are also essential as they ensure that new nurse maintain their optimal health, and the health of those around them. New nurses should ensure that they are working in an environment that offers support with regard to learning and improving one’s expertise. A positive working environment motivates nurses and encourages optimal performance in rendering health care services. Nurses should also ensure they work in a comfortable environment (Duchscher, 2008). A comfortable environment is one where the new nurse is certain of his capabilities. Self-care also entails engaging in ethical practices to ensure that all assignments and nursing engagement that a nurse engages in are in line with the ethical practices of the nursing profession. Self care also entails minimizing work overload. As mentioned earlier, new nurses are still learning hence work overload can interfere with effective learning (Duchscher, 2008).


Duchscher, J. (2008).  A process of becoming: the stages of new nursing graduate professional role transition.  Journal of continued education nursing. Vol. 39(10): 441-450

Published in Nursing
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:54

The Emancipation in the South After 1865

The Emancipation in the South After 1865

President Abraham Lincoln the president of United States was elected on November 6, 1860 something an event that outraged southern states. Most of the southerners felt as if there was no longer a place for them in the republican union simply because the republican party had run on an anti slavery platform for a long time. South Carolina seceded on December 20, 1860. Six other states split from the union and created the confederate states of America which was used to govern and make decisions for the states. Jefferson Davis was elected as provisional president who led the states in their activities, (Levine, 2005).

Southerners had talked about the property rights and states’ rights, but this did not happen until they engaged in war to preserve the political economy of slavery actions that were practiced by the northerners. People from the north felt powerful, and that is why they had no respect for the southern people to a point they said that they were not going to engage in war activities for the purposes of abolishing slavery actions. After president Lincoln was elected, he developed some strategies that he claimed to be stopping slavery actions and restoring the union. The war that started in the summer of 1861 developed problems and negative impacts to the two sides something that drag the development of the nation. Southerners after the stop of the war decided to enter into the development concepts in order recover from the war destructions, (Lichtenstein, 1998).

The north and the south parts had been hit by economic depression and the enraged white people riot activities. Northern people started accusing the African Americans of stealing their jobs. The war ended on April 18, 1865 after the surrender of the confederate army. A good number of people died in the war and thousands were injured. The southern landscape condition at that time was devastated.

After the end of war, a new chapter for the nation opened when the thirteenth amendment was put in place by its implementation. The implementation of the amendment abolished the act of slavery in the United States. The end of the war meant that over four million African Americans were free and had the rights to enjoy equality like the white people. This aspect created an environment that was favorable for the African Americans to feel free and engaged with others in the development of the nation. Former slaves who had been transported out of the region in order to help the whites travelled back, searching or visiting for those they knew. They had stayed for long in the separation situation, and now they had the freedom to share a life with their people. One of the happiest slaves was Harriet Jacobs who travelled back in the south and searched for her old home where she started a good life free from the slavery actions, (Levine, 2005).

Harriet faced the bewildering fact of release with everything from rage to concern to despair. Women and men in the south had the freedom to start a new life without any fear. The southern part became a place suitable for the black and white to conduct their activities of personal development as well as nation growth. People started to create a new social order in the southern region where they also began the work of rebuilding their shattered union for the benefit of their growth. The period after 1865 was called the reconstruction period simply because it was the time when people from the south had the freedom to enjoy equal right with those in the north and could carry any activities of developments that were stopped initially. The reconstruction period hold many tragic disappointments and promises to the southerners simply because nearly everything had been affected by the war. Most things had been destroyed and shattered before 1865 thus southerners had to work on them in the restoration of the true nature of the southern region. It was a time of a long painful struggle which was difficult and far longer than anyone could have thought. The emancipation in the south after 1865 was the start of struggle that has not yet ended, (Lichtenstein, 1998).

The reconstruction period had many challenges and difficulties both for the southerners and any other party that decided to take part in the restoration of the southern image. After the reconstruction amendments, another two were instituted in the country’s constitution. The fourteenth amendment came on June 1865 which granted citizenship to all people naturalized or born in the United States. The amendment that followed was the 15th which was passed on February of 1869 which gave the Americans a guarantee to vote. It ensured that no American was denied the right to exercise his or her voting rights, and this was truly a new beginning. The 15th amendment did not work properly for the African Americans because they were denied the right to vote in most states until the voting rights act of 1965 was passed, (Levine, 2005).

Work Cited:

Levine, B. Confederate Emancipation:Southern Plans to Free and Arm Slaves during the Civil War: Oxford University Press, 2005

Lichtenstein, Alex. "Proletarians Or Peasants? Sharecroppers And The Politics Of Protest In The Rural South, 1880-1940." Plantation Society In The Americas 5.2/3 (1998): 297-331. America: History and Life with Full Text. Web. 11 July 2013

Published in Sociology
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:52

Quantitative Research Study

Quantitative Research Study

1.         According to NCBI (2011), have greater rates of obesity than the low income countries.   This indicates that countries develop obesity as they develop wealth, for example, with the economic growth in India and China obesity rates have also dramatically increased.  America is one of the wealthiest counties in the world, and obesity rates are on the high whereby a third of the total population is overweight, and another third has obesity.  This situation is also predicted to worsen in the future with the rising childhood obesity rates.  Perhaps, several factors such as genetics and lifestyle among others have been highlighted to contribute to obesity.  However, by observing the current trends in the United States, it seems that poverty also has a great influence on this health condition since  a large number of the affected population are those who earn low income or those who live in poverty.  This study, therefore, aims to establish poverty as the major contributor to the increasing obesity rates in the developed countries by comparing the obesity rates among poor people and the rich people living in the United States.

2.         Random sampling is a process whereby the subjects of a study are selected by a matter of chance, and without any bias, and random assignment is a situation whereby the study subject has an equal chance of being a control or experimental group of the study (Social Research Methods, (2008). In the above study, random sampling will be done picking on the obese individuals (subjects) without prior identity of their economic status.  Random assignment will be conducted in this study by randomly picking an obese individual from each group (rich and the poor) who will act as the control of the study.


NCBI, (2011). Poverty and Obesity in the U.S. Retrieved From, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198075/ On July 11, 2013.

Social Research Methods, (2008).  Random Selection and Assignment. Retrieved From, http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/random.htm On July 11, 2013.

Published in Education
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:48

Declaration Of Independence

Declaration Of Independence

            The declaration of the rights of man and the citizen in 1789, it was influenced by the unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America. According to unanimous declaration, it states that men are created equal, and they are endowed by the creator with certain rights that are unalienable among them are liberty, pursuit of happiness, and life. In order for the rights to be secured, the governments are instituted among men, and whenever the government tries to destruct the rights, it is the right of the people to abolish it. According to the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen, it tends to consider that forgetfulness, ignorance, and content of man’s rights are what cause public misfortune and corruption in the government. This is because people tend not to consider others as being important and only care about themselves.

Therefore, this declaration is meant to respond to the unanimous declaration claiming that men were born freely, and they will remain like that with equal rights and any social distinction is going to be based on general usefulness. Therefore, the government should not try and cause any adjustments to human rights. With the political, misunderstanding of the declaration of independence, the declaration of the rights of men and citizens was responding to the how men need to be treated. According to the declaration of the rights of men, the aim of the political association is to preserve the inalienable and natural rights of man, which are property, liberty, resistance to oppression, and security.  Liberty refers to the power of doing whatever that is not injurious to other people.

The ideas that are presented in these documents are about the rights of human beings. The document about the declaration of the rights of women and the female citizens tend to show the rights that women have. Women have the same rights like that of men and men should not think that they are superior to women. Women and men have the right to their property. When man and woman get into a marriage they tend to share everything, and because the property is an inviolate and sacred right, no one should be deprived thereof unless there is a legally established public necessity that requires it and upon the condition of a previous and just indemnity. According to the three documents, they are mainly focused on what is right for citizens. It aims at showing men and women what they should claim to be theirs and how to avoid being taken away from them by any institution or government body.  The rights that appear to apply to men can also be used in women as they are all citizens with equal rights. All citizens are equal; therefore, they are equally admissible to the public offices, employments, and positions according to their capacity with no distinctions apart from that of talent and virtues.

These documents tend to agree in that all citizens have rights which apply both to men and women. Men and women should be treated fairly without discrimination on any basis. According to ideas from the declarations, some of them seem to apply even in the present time as today’ women are considered to be able to do what men can do which has resulted to equal treatment in mostly the employments positions. 


Declaration of independence (1776). The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America Retrieved from http://homepage.univie.ac.at/juergen.wallner/doc/lehre/mdf/quellentexte/q07.pdf

Published in Sociology
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:46

Foot Pain in Nursing Practice

Foot Pain in Nursing Practice

             Foot pain is a prevalent condition among registered nurses (RN) as they spend long hours on their feet. Direct care and clinic nurses are prone to nurse managers who spend fewer hours on their feet. RN spend as long as twelve hours on their feet thus putting them at risk of  foot pain and other related foot conditions such as plantar fasciitis. The paper focuses on addressing the issue of foot pain among RN. Nurses wear different types of shoes to wear. Shoes such as tennis shoes, clogs and shoes with springs were worn by nurses on duties. It is only by enhancing nurses and nurse assistant’s knowledge on foot pain and care for the feet that the safety of patients and the quality of patient care will be guaranteed. The research focuses on RNs from Cobb Hospital 5South, in an effort to prevent the occurrence of foot problems.

The nursing profession is very demanding hence the need for nurses to uphold and ensure they maintain their optimal health. The research will provide nurses; nurse assistants and students undertaking nursing courses with essential information on the hurdles of their profession. Strategies such as proper foot wear, the management of weight, age of nurses and nurse activities will be considered, with regard to the occurrence of foot pain.  The efficiency of the suggestion offered in the research will be determined through questionnaires which will be distributed among nurses at 5south.


Nealy, R., McCaskill, C., Conaway, M. R., & Burns, S. M., (2012). The aching feet of nurses: an     exploratory study. Medsurg Nursing. Vol. 21(6),  354-359.

Published in Nursing
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:38

Same-Sex Marriage

Same-Sex Marriage


Same-sex marriage is the union between two people of the same sex. Two individuals with the same biological anatomy committing to live together as a couple are said to be in a same-sex marriage. The issue of same-sex unions has raised a lot of debate as it has widely, been assumed to be wrong. A marriage has traditionally been designed as the union between tow individual of the opposite sex. A man and a woman come together in marriage and live as husband and wife. The idea of two women or two men marrying and living as a married couple is ideally new hence generates a lot of emotions and controversy when discussed. The reality, however, is that the society has changed and with changed individuals with new sexual orientations have arisen. Men and women are finding love and affection from partners of the same-sex hence the rise of same-sex couples. The rise of same-sex couples has led to cries for equality in the arena of marriage. Same-sex couples need to enjoy the same rights as the heterosexual couples hence the need to recognize and legalize same-sex marriage.

Legalizing vs. not Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage

The debate of same-Sex relationship lies in the discussion of whether such unions should be legalized or not. Legalizing same-sex marriage means that couples in heterosexual or homosexual relations will enjoy equal benefits that come with marriage. Marriage provides individuals with a lasting foundation based on love and commitment for each other. The ability of two individual to openly confess their love and express it to the rest of the world will be enjoyed by the heterosexual and homosexual couples. Legalizing same sex marriage also increases the chance for the government in the form of income tax for the married couple. In most same sex relations, both partners are financially independent and working (Allen, 2006). Permitting the union between the same sex couple will enable the government to reap the benefits with regard to taxes. The marriage penalty tax will also be higher for individuals that are married and paying their taxes jointly than individually.

Critics against the union of same-sex couples base their argument in the path of morality, ethics and religions. From a religious perspective, most argue that marriage was created to be a union between a man and a woman. Form a Christian perspective, the bible illustrates that God created woman to be man’s partner. A woman is thus perceived as a companion who leaves her parents home and joins a man to create their own family. From this perspective, critics against same-sex marriage argue that the union between persons of the same gender is forbidden. In fact, most religions perceive same-sex relations as a sin. Other critics argue that permitting same-sex unions creates an ethical quagmire as critics argue that legalizing same-sex unions will open up doors to more social ills such as bestiality and polygamy, which may also eventually become acceptable practices in the future.

Heterosexual relations as the norm

Traditionally, marriage was perceived as the union between a man and a woman with the intention of raising a family. A man and woman would love and companionship in their union which they could consummate in marriage.  Homosexuality and lesbianism was non-existence in the past, and a man was expected to find a woman and make her his wife. Similarly, a girl was expected to grow to a mature and beautiful woman and finally settle in marriage with a man.  The idea of same-sex marriage was unfathomable and was considered immoral and a serious social ill. However, the changing society introduced different lifestyle changes in people. People began to adopt different taste and preference. Heterosexual relations were no longer the only way for individuals to achieve sexual satisfactions. Homosexuality and lesbianism gradually made their way into the society. Today, homosexuality, and lesbianism is considered part of life and demonstrates differences in sexual orientation in society. 

  The rise of same-sex relations

Today, same-sex relations are considered a norm among many societies. Nations that abhorred same-sex union have embraced it and have recognized same-sex marriages as legal. In England, for instance, the current Prime Minister David Cameron passed a bill that legalized same-sex marriages. The bill has now become law after Queen Elizabeth II approved it (The Associated press, 2013). Same-sex married is widely considered legal in many states within USA.  Specifically, 13 states in USA have legalized same-sex marriage. Some of these states include New Hampshire, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota and New York. The rise of same-sex relations is attributed to changes in people’s lifestyle and sexual preferences (Black, 2012).       

Legalizing same sex marriage

As much as some critics are against the legalization of these unions, it may inevitable as the practice becomes widely acceptable across societies.    In an effort to eradicate discrimination, legalizing same sex marriages may become mandatory in the near future. Individuals in same sex relations belong to the LBGT group that considered its self a minority group due their unique lifestyle and preferences. Homosexual and lesbians belong to this category of LGBT. The denial of the right to marriage is thus perceived as a form of discrimination that is disallowed by the constitutions. An individual should not be denied the opportunity to love and companionship because of their sexual orientation. Legalization of the bill will thus ensure that the LGBT group does not suffer from any form of discrimination.   

Same sex marriages are simply a way of life and thus cannot be denied as though it were a criminal activity. Same sex unions do not affect anyone negatively (Rekers, 2005). The union involves the consensual union of two persons of the same gender. In fact, marriage, heterosexual or homosexual, is a personal decision hence the involvement of the society in determining the legality of same-sex union is unjustified. The society or any other legal bodies have no right in dictating what people can or cannot do with regard to their personal life. People have different tastes and preference and the decision to marry an individual from the same gender is simply a person’s preference.  

Analysis and Review of Literature

            Same sex marriages must be recognized and legalized as it does not constitute to violation of any laws as provided by the constitution. In fact, prohibiting marriage between individuals of the same gender is what constitutes the violation of the constitution. The first amendment of the constitution clearly indicates that a person’s religious views or lack of it should be respected. The denial of permission to marry due to sexual orientation is mainly based on the religious perception of the union. Most religious individuals perceive same sex marriage as a violation of their teaching and ideologies. Most religions recognize marriage as the union between a man and a woman hence do not recognize same-sex relations. However, this is a form of discrimination and violation of the first amendment.

Marriage must be perceived as a secular activity that involves the decision by two consenting adults. So, regardless of whether the union is a homosexual or heterosexual one, all civil and religious institution has the responsibility of respecting it. Section one of the 14th amendment of the constitution stipulates that all American citizens have the right to enjoy property possession, life and freedom. The deprivation of these factors is thus considered a violation of the 14th amendments as provided by the constitution (Legal Information Institute, 2013). Same-sex individuals are part of the American population hence should not be denied any privileges and liberties dues to their sexual preferences.

Lesbians and homosexual are not identifiable in a crowd as they are the same as the heterosexual individuals. The only way that an individual can reveal his sexual preferences is when he makes the information public.  Individuals in same sex relations thus work and pay taxes like any other citizens. They should be able to live a normal life and be accorded their rights and protection just like the heterosexual individuals. The right to marriage is among the many privileged that individuals should be able to enjoy without interference from religious, legal and civil bodies. The decision to marry is a personal choice and thus any form of interference is unwarranted (Lipp, 2013).

Critics main concerns with legalizing same sex unions is that societies will have set an unprecedented platform for other groups of person to demand the legalization of heinous acts such as bestiality and incest (Gallagher, 2004). This argument is valid, but not applicable to the legalization of same-sex marriages.  Same sex union are not illegal and do not constitute any form of harm to parties involved. Same-sex relations are engaged in by consenting adults that are aware of their sexual orientation. Same-sex marriages can, therefore, not be compared to acts such as bestiality that is illegal from all sectors of life.

Legalizing same-sex marriages will benefits the society with regard to finding homes for children in foster care. According to Kelin, 2013, there are over 100000 children in fosters care. Most Individuals in heterosexual relations prefer to have their own children rather than adopt. In most instances, the option of adoption comes to be when efforts to have their own biological child fail. Such as scenario means that most children struggle to find permanent homes and majority reach adulthood when still in the foster care system.

Legalizing same sex unions means that the gay or lesbian couple will finally be recognized as an ideal family unit. As a family unit, the gay couple will be able to adopt children and reduce the number of children under foster care. Individuals in same- sexual union are not capable of biologically siring their own children. These partners are left with two main options: adoption or use of scientific methods such as artificial insemination. Legalizing same-sex union means that the union will be legally accepted as a family unit. As a family unit, the partners will be able to consider adoption and become parents to deserving children.

Critics have, however, argued that a homosexual family will not provide a child with the optimal environment for growth. They argue that a child reared in a man only or woman only family may adopt similar homosexual tendencies. This argument is made on the basis that children tend to adopt behavior and habits that they see around them. A child reared by homosexual couples may grow with a strong preference for individuals of his gender. This argument may sound plausible, but has never been proven to be right. In fact, several researches indicate that the determination of an individual’s sexual preferences is not determined by upbringing. There are many individuals who have ended up gay or lesbians, yet they were raised by heterosexual parents. The ability of an individual to become a lesbian or gay is dependent on many factors and not just the upbringing.

Legalizing marriage will also give individuals in same-sex union to enjoy the benefits provided to married individuals.  It is through marriage that a person is considered another’s legal spouse. It is also through marriage that individuals can legally share property, receive insurance benefits and be considered as the immediate family member. Currently, states that do not legalize same- sex marriage do not consider partners in such arrangements as spouses (Kelin, 2013). This thus leads to problems such as benefits issuance in case of death and visitation rights in case a partner falls sick.  The denial of such basic rights is considered a violation of the constitution. It is through the legalization of same sex unions that gay couples will get to enjoy same rights as their heterosexual couples. It is unfair and unjust for an institution to deny a person rights such as visitation rights because their union does not legally fit the ideal definition of marriage. Legalizing these union will ensure that individuals in same-sex union can get married and enjoy the same benefits as their heterosexual counterparts.

The legalization of the union between two persons should be based purely on love and nothing else. Love should be the determinant of whether two people deserve to be joined in marriage or not. Other factors such as sexual orientation and preferences should be left to the decision of the parties involved in the marriage. In a heterosexual union, the decision to marry is determined by love and not other benefits such as insurance and joint decision making (Gallagher, 2004). Marriage is thus the ultimate expression of love to another person. Two people that are in love must be allowed to consummate their union through marriage. This should be the guiding principle in legalizing same-sex marriage. A relationship comprises of people who love each other. Regardless of whether people are of the same sex or opposite sex, they should be permitted to marry if they wish to. If heterosexual relations are legal, then homosexual relations must also be legal as they are also based on love.

Critics against the marriage of homosexual couples argue that marriage has for many years been accepted as the unions between a man and a woman hence homosexual should not be permitted to marry.  Such a perception is, however, one-sided and inclines to the religious realm of marriage.  The ideologies of other religions should not be used as the basis of determining what is rights or wrong in the society. Not all individuals in the society are religious hence the need to establish rules that are objective and suitable to all members of a society.

Legalizing same-sex marriage will enhance morality in the family unity, marriage and society as a whole. The current perception that homosexuals engage in immoral acts has encouraged hiding. Individuals that are aware that there are gay or lesbians are still getting involved in heterosexual relationships so as to fit in the society (Black, 2012). The result is the presence of a promiscuous society as homosexual retains their same-sex partners, but at the same time entertains individuals from the opposite sex. Without laws to legalize same-sex unions, couples in these relationships have more than one partner. Unfortunately, just like any other sexual relations, many partners in same-sex relations increases the risk of contracting STDs. Legalizing same-sex marriage will encourage faithfulness and commitment in partners. In a heterosexual marriage, an individual is expected to commit and be faithful to the partner he or she has married. Similarly, legalizing same-sex marriage will encourage faithfulness and a change of lifestyle. All in all, the society will have found a lasting solution to behavior such as carefree sexual behaviors that expose many to diseases and infections.

Legalizing same sex unions ascertain the psychological, social and physical well being of people in the LGBT group. As mentioned earlier, same-sex marriage is only recognized in 13 states. This means that homosexuals in close to 37 other states are struggling to be recognized or are hiding so as not to be labeled as homosexuals. Homosexuals living in states that have no legalized their union face undue psychological and social torment.  Homosexuals that live as a couple, in these states, are unable to enjoy their union just like any other married couple. Since their union is not recognized by law, most are left in psychological anguish when it comes to matters such as health care and making decisions on behalf of their partners. A partner is, for instance, not considered a reliable decision maker in case his partner requires consent for a surgical procedure. The homosexual partner is left out in any decision regarding the well being of his partner (Allen, 2006). This is regardless of the fact that the two may have lived together for decades. Without recognitions, homosexuals spend time and money fighting for equality and the right to be recognized rather than engaged in nation building activities.  From a physical perspective, individuals in same-sex unions suffer from discrimination. This is especially so if their relation becomes public. Since their relation is considered illegal, their actions such as a public display of affection are considered offensives. Intimate activities such as holding hands may not be kindly accepted by other members of the community. It is only by recognizing and legalizing marriage homosexuals and other members of the LGBT will achieve psychological, social and, physical well-being (Lipp, 2013).

Legalizing same-sex marriage in all 50 states, in America, is vital in helping the country establish a united front with regard to providing justice to all. American has traditionally been perceived as a leader in advocating freedom and democracy. The fact that the majority of its states still perceive same-sex marriages as illegal is tarnishing the positive image of the country. The decision not to legalize same-sex marriage appears to be discriminative towards part of the minority groups.  Currently, there are more than 50 countries that have defeated America with regard to appreciating diversity and legalizing same sex marriages. These nations are currently providing its citizens with federal marriage equality thus allowing individuals of the same gender to marry and enjoy equal rights as those persons of the opposite gender. Legalizing same-sex marriages across all American states will assist the country strengthen its nation’s identity and maintain a positive reputation.


The debate on whether to legalize same –sex marriage is not about to end soon. Societies are split down the middle on the moral, religious and social aspect of legalizing the union of two individuals of the same sex. Whereas many believe that legalizing same-sex marriage will be the first step towards destroying the framework and institution of marriage, others believe that the world is changing hence individual preferences are changing. Legalizing same-sex marriages is one of the ways to demonstrate acceptance for the change. Overall, legalizing same-sex marriage is the ideal way forward for societies. It is impossible to dictate legally or religiously the sexual orientation that an individual must adopt. Legalizing same-sex unions is thus the first step towards accepting and embracing diversity. Individuals in same-sex unions will provide homes for foster children as they adults in these unions cannot procreate. Legalizing same-sex marriage will also reduce discrimination as prohibited in the constitution. Marriage must be accepted regardless of the parties involved. The emphasis of a legal marriage should be love, a factor that is present in heterosexual and homosexual unions.


Allen, D. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/~allen/samesexmarriage.pdf

Black, B. (2012). Gay marriage: why same-sex couples should get married. Huffington post

Gallagher, M. (2004). (How) Will gay marriage weaken marriage? University of St. Thomas law journal. Vol. 2(1); 33

Klein, E. (2013). Sorry Justice Scalia: there is no evidence that gay parents aren’t great parents. Washington post. March 27, 2013

Legal Information Institute (2013). Amendment XIV. Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

Lipp, M. (2013). Ways the USA benefits from legalization of gay marriage. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/murray-lipp/gay-marriage-is-great-for_b_3370173.html

Rekers, G. (2005). Same-sex marriage: not in kid’s interest.  Catholic education resource center

The associated press, (2013). Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II signs bill legalizing same-sex marriage. The associated press


Published in Sociology
Tuesday, 18 February 2014 07:35


Gout is one of the diseases that are preventable in the human life. The disease is as a result of overload of uric acid in the body. The uric acid that overloads in the body forms the tiny crystals of urate which deposit in tissues of the body especially in the joints of the body. Crystals that form in the joints are responsible for the disease simply because they cause recurring attacks of joint inflammation, which is the, arthritis condition. Gout is among those diseases which are considered progressive and chronic. The chronic gout condition is something that leads to the deposits of the lumps of uric acid, which are hard, in the tissues. They particularly cause kidney stones (nephrolithiasis), decreased kidney function, and joint destruction in humans.
According to medical healthcare records, gout is among the unique distinction healthcare conditions which are frequently recorded. The disease is related to a condition of inherited abnormality of the human body ability to engage in the processing of the uric acid. Uric acid results from the breakdown product of the many food stuffs we take in our everyday activities. Research shows that the abnormality in the ability to handle uric acid can cause something which results to the attacks of painful arthritis, blockage of the kidney, kidney stones, and some conditions that lead to the failure of the kidney. In some people, the manifestations of gout in the kidney or arthritis do not occur, but they do develop some conditions of elevated blood uric acid levels known as the hyperuricemia.
Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is the state of having elevated levels of uric acid in the human blood without any signs or symptoms, (Chase, 2011).
Gouty arthritis is a condition which is extremely painful attack which occurs in a rapid onset of joint inflammation. The joint inflammation condition is developed by the deposits of uric acid crystals in the synovial fluid and in the synovial lining. When the immune system reacts, the intense joint inflammation is experienced which causes the white blood cells in the body to engulf chemical messengers and uric acid crystals of inflammation to be released which leads to redness of the joint tissues, heat and pain in the whole body. With the gout progress, the attacks of gouty arthritis conditions occur frequently into the joints causing additional pains in the affected area as well as affecting other parts of the joints in the body, (Ferguson, 2013).
It is with no doubt that gout is one of the most painful diseases that attack humans simply because it attacks joints. A disease that affects joints becomes painful simply because the patient has to engage in everyday activities that require exercise of the joints. Gout is a health condition that is caused by a number of factors that can be prevented. Humans are responsible for the development of gout simply because they can manage to avoid some of the main causes of this condition. One of the causes of gout is the consumption of foods and diets that are high in purines. Humans mostly take food that contains purines which contains components that develop the uric acid. Mushrooms, beans, liver, shellfish, gravies, sardines, and anchovies are some of the foods that contain purines. Being overweight is another factor that may contribute to the occurrence of gout. Evidence shows that, an increase in the excessive weight in humans contributes to the probability of getting gout, (VanItallie, 2010).
Excessive consumption of alcohol is another aspect that can trigger gout attacks. Some people have a tendency of taking alcohol in excess, and this may be dangerous to their health simply because they can develop some conditions of gout. Brandy, wine, and beer are among the alcoholic contents that humans are supposed to avoid in excessive consumption simply because they have some aspects of developing gout. High blood pressure according to studies conducted in the field of health care can cause gout attacks. This is because high blood pressure may develop uric acid, which is the, contributor of gout. There are certain drugs used by humans that contain components that increase uric acid levels in the body thus results to gout attacks.
Most of the factors that contribute to gout are preventable although most people have a tendency of ignoring some signs or symptoms of a gout attack. Humans are supposed to eat foods that are beneficial to their body, and that reduce the level of uric acid in the body. Foods that contain vitamin C, tea, green vegetables, fruit juices, strawberries, coffee, and cherries are beneficial to the body. When in any medications, you should check with your physician if the medics you are taking can increase the level of uric acid in the body. One should take at least six to eight glasses of water a day so as to help reduce or excrete the uric acid level in the blood, (Hechtman, 2012). 

Avhad, G., Dandale, A., Ghate, S., & Dhurat, R. (2011). Unknown: Multiple painful nodules - what is the diagnosis? Chronic tophaceous gout. Dermatology Online Journal, 17(12), 9
Chase, D. (2011). All About Gout The Plain Truth About a Painful, but Often Avoidable, Condition. Businesswest, 46
Ferguson, J. (2013). Wellness: Gout is painful but preventable. Retrieved from, http://www.timesdispatch.com/entertainment-life/wellness-gout-is-painful-but-preventable/article_74091c15-4951-5fc4-9416-5fae53d050a0.html, On July 6, 2013
Gout a painful burden for employers. (2006). PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News, (511), 5
Hechtman, L. (2012). Clinical Naturopathic Medicine: Elsevier Australia
Kuritzky, L., & Panchal, R. (2010). Gout: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Colchicine to Prevent Painful Flares During Early Urate-Lowering Therapy. Journal Of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 24(4), 397-401. doi:10.3109/15360288.2010.526689
Terkeltaub, R. (2011). Gout and Other Crystal Arthropathies: Elsevier Health Sciences
VanItallie, T. (2010). Gout: epitome of painful arthritis. Metabolism: Clinical And Experimental, 59 Suppl 1S32-S36. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2010.07.009
Published in Education

Summary of Thirteen Days and the Connection to Foreign Policy

Summary of the Film

The film revolves around President Kennedy’s quest to stop the Soviet Union from placing weapons of mass destruction in Cuba. The federal government obtains information about the intentions of the Soviet Union from its intelligence agencies. As leader of the world’s most powerful nation, President Kennedy is faced with the mammoth task of establishing adequate measures to prevent the activation of these missiles by the Soviet Union in Cuba. In the wake of these developments, President Kennedy convenes an urgent meeting that comprises of the country’s bigwigs in terms of security and decision making.

The president’s advisors immediately emphasize on the need for United States to use military action in thwarting the activities of the Soviet Union in Cuba (Self, 2000). While such a course of action is highly tempting, President Kennedy is immensely skeptical about the potential ramifications of war. For instance, he is wary of the possibility of triggering vengeful attacks in West Germany from the Soviet Union.

In addition to the potential attacks on West Germany, there was the likelihood of jeopardizing American interests in numerous countries in the international scene. Consequently, President Kennedy Seeks to address the crisis in a diplomatic way (Self, 2000). The president soon realizes that the use of nonmilitary means would have extensive ramifications. For instance, the Soviet Union demanded the withdrawal of American war vessels from Turkey. In essence, the Soviet Union used this as a condition that would make it discontinue the placement of missiles in Cuba. The film also depicts how the media played an influential role in leaking government secrets within the United States and also across borders.

Connection of the Film to Foreign Policy

Extensive connections can be drawn between the film and foreign policy. Decision making is among the most notable dimensions of foreign policy in this film. President Kennedy must make decisions on whether to attack the Soviet Union activities in Cuba. While his advisors pressurize him to take military action against the Soviet Union, President Kennedy opts for diplomatic means. In essence, he makes this decision after carefully assessing the potential implications of each course of action. If the United States attacked the Soviet Union, it was likely that it would trigger a major war pitting numerous countries across the globe. Additionally, military action would have undoubtedly cost the United States extensive resources.

The use of diplomatic means in handling the crisis also had various implications. These perspectives highlight the decision making dimensions of foreign policy. In addition to decision making, another notable dimension of foreign policy encapsulated in this film pertains to rationality. Rationality is a pertinent aspect of foreign policy. This dimension was used extensively by President Kennedy as he sought to develop an effective roadmap in view of the imminent crisis. For instance, President Kennedy found it rational to initiate dialogue with the Soviet Union in order to avert security complications in Cuba.

Historical analogy is another essential dimension of foreign policy depicted in the film. President Kennedy uses historical analogy to compare the current situation to circumstances that characterized the beginning of World War II. Historical analogy is a crucial aspect of cognitive bias as enshrined in the fundamental concepts of foreign policy. Additionally, the film depicts the significance of goal clarity while formulating foreign policy.



Lecture Notes: Foreign Policy

Self, D. (2000). Thirteen days, Accessed on 1st July 2013 from        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tho5ZYLiuoc

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