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Items filtered by date: December 2013

Tuesday, 10 December 2013 12:08

Letter To The Instructor

Letter To The Instructor


Writing is a vital skill in life. Writing forms the basis for judging the intellectual ability of individuals within the academic and professional arena. It is also a vital way of communicating information. This is why this course has been of great significance to me. In this letter, I will discuss how the writing class has helped me improve my writing skills. I will also give an account my views concerning the class.

This writing class has assisted me to enhance my writing skills. Previously, I used to write without paying attention to the structure and content of the papers. The class has made me aware that the presentation of information affects the readers’ comprehension of the message. I have learnt how to structure my message appropriately so as to convey the intended message. I believe that I can now organize and express my thoughts better that I used to do before the class. I have also learnt that academic writing entails extending ones thought past the first impression and responses. The class has enhanced my analytical and critical skills. I can now write papers that are authoritative and presents arguments that are convincing to the readers.

I have also learnt that there are varied forms of writing within the professional and academic sphere. I piece of writing can be a narrative, summary, response, reflective or concept paper. These different forms of writing require different approaches. I now understand what these different forms of writing entails. The essay assignments have been instrumental in enhancing my skills in writing. The assignments granted us the chance to apply the concepts learnt in class.

I completed several essays during the class. I found the personal narrative assignment to be the most interesting. I liked this essay because it granted me the chance to explore my creativity in terms of writing. In this essay, I was able to recreate my personal experiences and enable third parties to share this experience.  I also found the point of view essay interesting. The point of view essay enlightened me on how an author can influence the readers’ views concerning an issue. I learnt how an author can create a positive or negative impression about an issue through writing techniques such as selection and emission of information.

I found the summary and strong response assignment a bit challenging. The first part of the assignment required the students to report an author’s argument in an objective manner. It took time before I could get this right. I could separate my personal views when reporting the author’s argument. However, the instructor’s feedback was extremely useful in enhancing my understanding of the assignment. Know, I can write an objective summary of any piece of writing. This skill is extremely vital in the academic and professional career. I also experienced difficulties in terms of providing a strong response to the article.

The format of the class was effective in helping us meet the objective of the course. We learnt new concepts during the class, which made the lessons interesting. The essays were also effective in enhancing our comprehension of concepts learnt in class. I also found the class text and notes extremely useful in enhancing our understanding of the course. The class text was easy to read as it explained the concepts in clear and precise manner. I also found the notes to be self explanatory. It was easy to refer to the notes whenever I got stuck on the assignments.


Tuesday, 10 December 2013 12:05

International Accounting Standards

International Accounting Standards

            The role of the International accounting standard board is to create set of quality financial standards that are internationally acceptable. The IASB has focused on issuance of principle based standards which has seen the introduction of accounting alternatives that represent a firm’s financial position and a picture of its performance. The financial accounting standards board (FASB) main role is to establish standards of financial accounting for the private sector. Unlike FASB, IASB has an international perspective as its standards are applied across the globe. FASB, on the other hand, is used by US firms only (FASB, 2013). The adoption of international accounting standards in US will be beneficial for the country in several ways. First, increased globalization will ensure that nations with international accounting standards adapt to meet the needs of the markets with ease. International accounting standards will also ensure investor protection by promoting informed investment decisions with regard to full and fair disclosure. Investors will make comparisons of companies operating in different regions before making any financial decisions (SEC, 2000).

Adoption of international accounting standards will also ensure the nation adopts high quality auditing standards. International accountings standards will provide guidelines on training, expertise and resources to ensure quality auditing is guaranteed. The main disadvantage with the adoption of international accounting standards is the expected negative effects it may have on small business. Local businesses are expected to face increased costs as the international accounting standards costs are higher than the FASB costs. The complexity of the adoption of international standards is also evident as US states enjoy a sense of sovereignty with regard to security laws, tax laws and baking regulations (IFRS, 2013). Adopting an international framework means that the sovereignty of states will be jeopardizes as states will have to adopt uniform accounting standards.


FASB, (2013). About. Retrieved from http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/LandingPage&cid=1175805317407

IFRS, (2013). Home Page. Retrieved from http://www.ifrs.org/Pages/default.aspx

SEC, (2000). SEC concept release. Retrieved from http://www.sec.gov/rules/concept/34-42430.htm

Published in Accounting
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 12:00

PDQ Case Study

PDQ Case Study


Streamlining computer operations in an organization can be significantly challenging. This mostly occurs if numerous computer applications are to be implemented. This accentuates the significance of integrating the project management life cycle models into such operations. The Pizza Delivered Quickly (PDQ) case study presents a practical platform for assessing the integration of different computer systems into the operational framework of an organization. This is because of PDQ’s quest to enhance its sales in the wake of increased competition. Different PMLC models are required for the different subsystems for PDQ. This analysis focuses on the subsystems for PDQ as directly relates to the fundamental concepts of project management.

Requirements for Subsystems

Requirements for each Subsystem Proposed for PDQ are characterized by differences. In view of such distinctions, it is pertinent to assess the requirements for the six subsystems encompassing the proposed operational system for PDQ. The first subsystem is the pizza factory locator. For this subsystem, a notable requirement pertains to speed. The main role of this subsystem is to identify the relevant factories which are in proximity to the customer. The speed of the pizza factory locator will have extensive implications of the efficiency of the entire system (Hedeman, 19). Geographical positioning also serves as an essential requirement for the pizza factory locator subsystem. This requirement facilitates for zoning of the organization’s factories based on the customer’s location.

Order entry is the second subsystem in the proposed project for PDQ. An outstanding requirement for this subsystem pertains to the customer details. The order entry subsystem should have adequate capacity to narrow down on the pertinent details of the client such as preferences and name. This would avert confusions during the actual delivery process. With regard to the logistics subsystem, accuracy is an essential requirement. This is largely because of the complex nature of the entire logistics subsystem.

Order Submit serves as the next subsystem in the proposed project for PDQ. For this subsystem, communication efficiency is an outstanding requirement. This is because of the subsystem’s interconnection with other components of the proposed project for PDQ. For instance, this subsystem connects the pizza van to the factory (Webber, 178). The fifth subsystem encompasses the routing framework. The most outstanding requirement for this subsystem is the global positioning system. This will help in directing the delivery trucks to the required directions. With regard to the inventory management subsystem, accuracy serves as the most pertinent requirement. This is because of the sensitivity of inventory systems in any organization.

PMLC Models for the Subsystems

Different models for project management life cycle apply to different phases of a project. The proposed project for PDQ is not an exception with regard to the PMLC framework. It is thus crucial to identify the most appropriate PMLC model for the different subsystems. For the pizza factory locator, the agile project management approach is the most appropriate. This is because if the anticipated changes within the entire framework of the pizza factory locator subsystem. In contrast, the traditional project management model should be used for the Order Submit subsystem. This is largely because the solutions for the different anticipated challenges have been established.

For the logistics subsystem, the APM approach is the most suitable (Clements, 126). This is because of the numerous complexities characterizing the entire logistics subsystem. Additionally, the solutions for this subsystem are unclear. Since the solutions for the order entry subsystem are known, the linear PMLC model is the most suitable. This model is highly applicable to a subsystem whose overall framework is more or less precise (Wysocki, 61). This will facilitate for an excellent flow within the entire proposed project for PDQ. The traditional PMLC is the most appropriate for the routing subsystem. This is choice hinges on the rationale that the requirements of the routing subsystem have been specified. As pertains to the inventory management subsystem, the agile PMLC approach is the most effective. This choice is based on the unclear nature of the solutions for this subsystem.

WBS for the Pizza Factory: Locator Subsystem


 Assumptions used in designing the WBS

There are various assumptions which form the basis of the work breakdown structure. For instance, the entire design is based on the presupposition that the clientele for PDQ can be grouped into different zones based on geographical location. This is an essential assumption with regard to the accurate location of the relevant pizza factories.

The Best type of Contract for PDQ

In order to actualize the proposed project for PDQ, different types of contracts are available. The first type of contractual agreement pertains to the letter contract. In this contractual framework, an accord is reached as pertains to the price. Consequently, subsequent deviations in the price are not acceptable once the project has commenced (Karzner, 89).  The definite quantity contract is another alternative contractual framework. In such a contractual framework, the supply is definite. This can serve as a stumbling block in the event of additional requirements. The fixed price contract is also another alternative for the proposed project for PDQ. This kind of contract stipulates that the deliverables from the contractor are provided at a fixed price. This serves as the most effective contractual framework for PDQ. Based on such a contract, the firm can easily maximize on its targets. With regard to the payment schedule, the letter contract is the best approach (Clements, 107). Using such a schedule, PDQ can easily avert irrelevant expenses while also streamlining the efficiency of the entire inventory system.


Different PMLC models are required for the different subsystems for PDQ. The speed of the pizza factory locator will have extensive implications of the efficiency of the entire system. Geographical positioning also serves as an essential requirement for the pizza factory locator subsystem. An outstanding requirement for the order entry subsystem pertains to the customer details. The order entry subsystem should have adequate capacity to narrow down on the pertinent details of the client such as preferences and name. For the logistics subsystem, the APM approach is the most suitable. This is because of the numerous complexities characterizing the entire logistics subsystem. Additionally, the solutions for this subsystem are unclear. The first type of contractual agreement pertains to the letter contract. In this contractual framework, an agreement is reached with regard to the price. Consequently, subsequent deviations in the price are not acceptable once the project has commenced. 


Clements, J. P. (2012). Successful project management, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning

Hedeman, B. H. (2010). Project management, Van Haren Publishing

Karzner, H. R. (2009). Project management: A systems approach to planning and scheduling, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Webber, L. (2012). IT project management essentials, New York, NY: Wolters Kluwer     Law

Wysocki, R. K. (2012). Effective project management: Traditional, agile, extreme   managing complexity in the face of uncertainty, Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley &         Sons

Published in Management
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:52

Church Law, Leadership and Tax law

Church Law, Leadership and Tax law

             Eric Knowles contributed in the discussion of church leadership and its real estate concepts. According to Knowles, anything that relates to church economics, real estate, and facilities people involved are known in the development of poor decisions. He claims that the type of large assets controlled by the church involves real estate, which comprises of financing, disposition, and acquisition. Some of the common opportunities for future acquisition that exist in this setting include the sells to church at cost of purchase, city zoning terminology. Person buys building and a situation where church gets 100% loan to value among other. The fundamentals of church real estate focus on the concept of buy versus lease which works under the concept of rule of thumb. When explaining the concept of rule of thumb, Knowles indicated that landlords have to generate $15k per month before they consider having a dedicated lease, own space or do the rental activities.

The lease options as explained by Knowles include sharing churches, community recreation centers, movie theaters, church in a box, hotels, and public schools. He argues that when buying something, sound decisions have to be developed so as to ensure that proper and appropriate purchase are acquired. Some of the factors that should be determined when making a decision for buying as highlighted by Knowles include budgets, demographics, area analysis, capital, and should always involve experts. Apart from sharing of the building, there are other options that may facilitate in acquiring a structure for use. According to the author, one can build the building from scratch, lease, and apply the concept of permits. When selling something, the owner has to work out on the problem and difficulties that exist in the economy.

Dr, Frat talked about the aspects of church law and the likelihood of being sued. It is with no doubt that a court does not hold any jurisdiction over disputes within a church. On the same thing, pastors are part of the church which means that a pastor under all circumstances cannot sue a church. The law of the church helps in understanding the concepts of a hierarchical church structures and congregational. It is the work of pastors in the church to help in the church entity formation where they engage in activities that relate to making sound decisions about operating and developing church. The work of pastors in the church setting is to help the management decide whom to fire and hire when making claims of church financing concepts. This is because that the church is a corporation that has no profit interests.

Dr. Frat says that pastors in church help in formation and running the church board. Most of The church organizations have board of directors who have power that helps in the growth of the church. The church board is responsible in control over the organization plus the making of sound decisions. The church authority argues that pastors have no power or authority to remove or fire a member of the church board without using the right channel. Members of the church are respected by church law simply because they hold control of even selecting individuals to form the church board. The church law according to Dr. Frat helps the church and its members in making sound decisions on different areas of church development. Some of key areas here include insurance, contracts, making board members, and investments among others.

John Cook talked about the concept of taxes and how they are supposed to be handled in the church setting. He explains on types of those tax laws that an individual can benefit from when in ministry. Individuals who work as a volunteer at church may deduct out some pocket expenses for volunteer work as charitable contributions. It is vital for someone to ensure proper records of expenses are put including mileage where necessary. The concept of tax law is not responsible in the defining ministers of the church such as ordained, commissioned, or licensed pastors for that case. Cook explained that the concept of ordination plays a major role in the tax purposes simply because it helps individuals stay wherever they are for life without any problems or challenges with the aspects of church tax law.

For church purposes, some income is not subjected to the income tax situation. This is explained by Cook under the concept of income tax and housing allowance in the church law. The tax law provides some limits which should not be included in the making of church decisions that relates to church tax. These limits include what the church approves, what spent the income, the fair market value of home, actual utilities, and fair market value of furniture. Cook gives an emphasis on the concept of duel tax status where he claims that it should be viewed under the aspect of income tax purposes when the employer is working with two employees. He also points out that all deductions for income and social security are ministry related expenses.


Carl, Z. (2008). American Civil Church Law: Studies in History, Economics and Public Law: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

Hopkins, R. B. (2011). The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations: John Wiley & Sons

Published in Sociology
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:43

Delivery Methods and Technologies

Delivery Methods and Technologies


Capacity building is an essential element for the development for Tesco Plc Company. Training and development are one way, which the company will address its needed so as to ensure that sustained growth is attained by developing a competitive business environment (Noel, 2012. Tesco Plc focus is the development of values for customers as a way of attaining locality in lifetime duration. This paper provides an outline for a training program to address Tesco Plc training needs. The training will cover three sessions taking three days.

Problems faced

Therefore, Tesco Plc has to ensure that it is capable of creating value to its customers at all times (Sinha & Sinha, 2009). This objective can be achieved if the customers give their suggestion for the areas that require improvement. There are three main challenges that the company faces which might hinder it from attaining its objectives. There is the low imagery that employees have, mainly those working in front of stores. This is caused by autocratic behaviors among leaders, and making employees work the way past their working hours. The second challenge that this organization faces are the willingness of employees to change their jobs as soon as they find an alternative. This makes the company have a high rate of turnover because they are not motivated in their current job. The third aspect is the inadequate benefits given to employees and lacks the motivation to work in this third largest company in the world. These challenges can be addressed by training leaders and supervisors, as well as employees.

Training plan

1 methods and technologies


The two technologies used for this training are electronic technology and online technology that will help employees keep informed and to increase their productivity. On online technology, employees will be expected to create their blogs or social media or website to share information as a group. They will also hold video conferences to discuss with other employees working in highly productive business environment the computer based training will act as an alternative to classroom based training for this organization in order to reach the goal of improving customer satisfaction. This type of training will not require employees to be in contact with their human trainers. This can be achieved in various methods like intelligent tutorial systems and programmed instructions in the form of tape recording, printed format like e-books and interactive videos among others.

The online technology approach training can be in virtual reality format that will place participants in a 3D environment that will support participants accomplish their training objectives within the 3 D images. This type of training gives participants the impressions that they are in a physical environment. Some of the devices used for this technology are treadmills, gloves, and headset.


Interactive approaches are a method that will be used for this training. This will involve the use of case studies showing how companies have managed to improve the customer’s value. The participants will also be required to hold question answer sessions, discussions, quizzes and demonstrations. Interactive techniques will help the trainees to remain attentive during the training period and fully grasp what they will be learning.

Theoretical approaches will be used to guide on two training methods. First is on goal setting that will help employees be aware of the outcomes expected from the training. These include specific goals, measurable goals, achievable goals, realistic goals, and time targeted goals (Hokanson & Miller, 2009). There will also be the expectancy theory which stipulates that people will decide to do something if depending on what they expect to yield from undertaking such actions.

2. Rationale

The technologies used in the training programs are important for employees to avoid technophobia and stay current to the company’s progress in using various modern technologies. They will learn how to use the new technology through the support of trainers and other employees who are conversant on how the technology works. This is important as companies shift towards the use of modern day technologies that aim at boosting performance and gaining competitive advantage. The rationale for the theoretical approach is that it will mainly help on benefits and how to increase customer value.

3. The cost benefit.

Innovation is also another reason why most companies are moving from the traditional approach (Harder & Miller, 2006). This includes the use of technologies that are cost effective such as web based training that minimize the costs of the whole training.

This training performance improvement and support, employees are able to be more innovative, and find other ways of improving their performances in order to meet the company’s goals.

Performance improvement and performance support also ensure there are high levels of employee engagement (Hokanson & Miller, 2009).

Employees are able to interact fully with their work environment. This helps them to know precisely what is required of them and work towards it.

4. Project management timeline




Resources Requirements




 Customer value


Failure to apply in real life setting

Demonstrations, case

studies, quizzes





Motivation of employees

Negative attitude towards the company

Theoretical application, e.g. expectancy




Benefits and customer value


Unwillingness of leaders to add benefits

 Budget changes / overtime compensations reviews

Case studies analysis



5. Learning management system (LMS)

The learning management system (LMS) can be used in the distribution of computer-based tutorials that is developed using online Adobe Captive. The learning management systems will be used in this training to track manages and provides web-based training. A project uploaded to the LMS has to be compliant with the standards of SCORM/ACC. Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) comprise of a set of specification that are helpful in the production of e-learning objectives, which are re-usable. The specifications define communication between a host which is usually the LMS and a client (Adobe Captive). Learning management systems help in the systematic management of development and training staff members. Training administration can be a difficult and time consuming.

LMS can streamline the effort of the administration and makes it easy for every staff member to receive the right training. LMS helps in the management of instructors, classrooms, resources and other equipments necessary for the delivery of the training courses. LMS further helps in the facilitation of online learning platform. This is because the LMS solutions incorporate tools to assist e-learning course authors in importing courses from various industry formats. The LMS helps to consolidate information for training into a single system. Conclusion

The training program for Tesco Plc will be devised based on the requirements of this organization and the whole industry. This paper has presented a plan on the steps involved in the training sessions through various methods and approaches.


Hardré, P, Miller, B (2006) current, comprehensive, and Flexible model of motivation for instructional design. Performance Improvement Quarterly 19 (3).

Hokanson, B & Miller, C (2009)A contemporary framework forInnovation in instructional design. Educational Technology, 49(2), 21–28.

Noel, R. (2012). Employee Training & Development. McGraw-Hill Education

Sinha, D., & Sinha, S. (2009). Personal growth and training & development. Lucknow, India: Word-Press.

Published in Business Studies
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:40

Understanding Shadow IT

                               Understanding Shadow IT

Question One

Development of Service Offerings

Based on the insights provided in the article, there various ways in which service offerings can be developed. In essence, service offerings pertain to the framework used by a corporate establishment in the provision of services to its clientele. Service offerings should be based on the relevant IT standards n order to facilitate for compliance.

Preparation of Assets to Accommodate Diversity

Software and IT assets in the modern corporate environments are immensely diverse. In order to accommodate such diversity, it is pertinent for the IT department to align the existing assets to the relevant upgrades. This averts the numerous pitfalls associated with upgrades for IT assets. Additionally, the relevant licences should be obtained for all new assets.

Un-served and Over-served Parts of Service

In most corporate establishments, IT challenges have extensive influence on the parts of service which may be over-served. This occurs when the organisation devotes extensive resources towards the mitigation of such challenges. Additionally, IT development and compliance might be easily un-served. These kinds of services are notable in the IT frameworks of numerous corporate entities.

Risk Involved

The main risk encompasses a decrease in customer loyalty. This is largely occasioned by the inadequate emphasis on the most pertinent aspects of corporate management. The framework for strategic management can also be hampered by the decrease in the levels of productivity among employees. For instance, some employees might be preoccupied with their fancy IT platforms such as tablets.

Underpinning ITSM Standards

Compliance is among the most pertinent roles of underpinning ITSM standards. In essence, these standards align the corporate entity to the industry standards. Additionally, ITSM standards streamline the productivity of employees.

Question Two

Cultural Elements

In a highly competitive global environment for businesses, cultural elements are essential aspects of consideration. Cultural elements must be integrated into the company’s strategic framework and also its IT systems. The emphasis on cultural elements forms the basis of organisational growth and also the enhancement of market share. This is attained by conforming to the current ITSM standards.

Policies around Strategy Generation

The generation of strategy is massively dependent on the policies established by businesses for IT growth. For instance, it is immensely critical that the business policy facilitates for innovation. Such a policy can spearhead the efficiency of the entire process of strategy generation. The technological aspects of diversity must also be integrated into the policy. Such perspectives can significantly optimize the efficiency of IT strategy.

Role of a Guiding Coalition

A guiding coalition plays the role of facilitating technological transitions in the business. This is extremely pertinent with regard to the acquisition of new assets and software upgrades. This coalition also has the role of streamlining the process of strategy generation. In order to develop a guiding coalition, corporate organizations must integrate the corporate IT team into the operational framework of strategic development.

Potential Overlap and Gaps

In the absence of a strategic approach various overlaps can occur in any corporate. A potential overlap is the inadequate implementation of pertinent components of the strategy. For instance, the control systems for new software might be ineffectual. This creates gaps within the entire strategic framework.

Key Roles in Strategy

The identification of the key roles facilitates for the actualization of the entire corporate strategic framework. A notable role is the connection of customers to organisational processes. An outstanding role from the ITIL strategy is the integration of software systems into the operational requirements of different departments. 

Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:36

Nursing Research Article Review Worksheet

Nursing Research Article Review Worksheet

Rykhoff, M., Coupland, C., Dionne, J., Fudge, B., Gayle, C., Ortner, T., &...Wrobleska, M.          (2010). A clinical group's attempt to raise awareness of organ and tissue          donation. Progress in Transplantation20(1), 33-39.

  1. Study and area of nursing.
  2. Peer reviewed
  3. Research questions
  4.  Hypothesis and variables
  5. Theoretical framework
  6. qualitative or quantitative

This article explores the factors that impact on beliefs and attitudes concerning tissue and organ donation among college students doing health science. The study aims to access the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of health science students in colleges concerning the issue of organ donation and to determine whether educational session does lead to an awareness increases and impact on their beliefs and attitudes on matters on organ donation. This study impacts on my area of study in that tissue and organ transplant are an essential aspect in my practice as a nurse for it is a procedure that saves the life of a person at an end stage of organ failure. The role of a nurse s to save life and to be concerned with the needs of family members of both recipients and donors.


 This is a peer-reviewed article because in my search from the library database. As a scholarly article, it is supported by references of other researches related to the discussion topic. This means that the article has been analyzed by a panel of experts who have critiqued the soundness and quality of research. The credentials of the authors are indicated in this article. Margot Rykhoff is a MA, BScN, RN, and works in the Humber Institute of Technology in Toronto Canada.

The article also has an abstract that gives the summary of this scholarly article.


The researcher’s investigation is guided by three main questions. This is on the knowledge of college students on organ donation? What is the college student’s attitude towards organ donation? What impact does awareness session and individuals aid impact on attitudes and knowledge of students concerning organ donation?


 The hypothesis is that knowledge, attitude and awareness on organ and tissue donation increases after intervention. The variables include Knowledge which involves organ donation awareness, living organ donation, whether they know a person who has ever received organ donation, discussions held with family members. Another variable is the attitude that students have towards organ donation. This can be strongly agree and agree. Their attitudes are categorized as towards donating their own organs, donate organs of their loved ones, receive organs when needed and willingness to discuss organ donation with family members.


This research is guided by the conceptual framework called Population Health Promotion Model (PHPM) that helps in guiding nurses on ways of improving the population’s health by taking the necessary actions based on different levels of society. The components of these models are 1.) Health determinants including factors that impact on health. 2.) Ottawa Charter on Health Pro-motion involving 5 strategies of promoting health. 3.) Integration of evidence based practice in the decision making process. PHPM conceptual framework is guided by the needed to determine the role of education as being a determinant aspect that influences decisions on health concerning organ donation. The model helps in the development of personal skills, strengthening of community actions and identifying strategies of health promotion.


 This is a quantitative quasi-experimental study. It uses semi structured questions administered the sample. This study aims to establish the relationship between cause and effect among variables. The design type is similar to a true experiment but has its unique differences. The study identifies an independent variable but is not manipulated by the researcher. The independent variable effects to the dependent variable are then me/assured. For the groups, the researcher has not randomly assigned them but uses those that are of pre-existing and naturally formed groups. The control groups are identified and exposed to the treatment variables. They are compared and studies among groups who are not.

The conclusions and analyses are made by determining the causes. Other variables, both the unknown and known can have an impact on the outcomes.

For this study, participants considered themselves aware on y the issue of organ donation after intervention. 86% of them were aware of organ donation. The large difference is on knowledge from post survey and pre- survey and awareness of dealing with family members and receiving consent from family members for organ and tissue donation.

This study presents a need for healthcare professionals to be informed on matters concerning tissue and organ donation process.


Rykhoff, M., Coupland, C., Dionne, J., Fudge, B., Gayle, C., Ortner, T., &...Wrobleska, M.          (2010). A clinical group's attempt to raise awareness of organ and tissue          donation. Progress in Transplantation20(1), 33-39.

Published in Nursing
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:31

Information Technology in Health Care

Information Technology in Health Care


IT investment serves to advance organizational performance (Glasser & Salzberg, 2011). Use of technology in any healthcare institution enables the organization to reduce costs, advance service, augment the quality of care and in, general, and achieve its strategic objectives.  The goal of the IT plan and strategic planning for its implementation is to ensure a strong and clear relationship between IT investment decisions and the organization’s overall strategies, goals and objectives.  The plan will center on two broad areas:

  • Activities that establish an IT agenda that well linked to organizational goals and initiatives. This agenda defines needs for applications, technical infrastructure, data and IT staffs, process, and organization.
  • Initiatives designed o improve internal capabilities and characteristics that enhance the overall ability to be effective in the application of IT (http://www.nyhealthcarecommission.org).

In order to achieve the goal of the organization integrate information technology completely in its operations, the information technology implementation plan will be guided by four main goals. Each of the four main goals will be accompanied by the actionable strategy that will transform the operation of the organization into digital operation. These goals are also the key goals that have been recognized as crucial to the realization of improved healthcare services provision.

 1. Providing medical and non-medical staffs with adequate information

Offering clinicians and other staffs with adequate, scientific and up-to-date information are fundamental in improving organization efficiency. In order to realize these goals, the organization will adopt electronic health record. This will reduce medical errors and help the organization achieve its goal of improving healthcare services.

2. Interconnect clinician

This is the secant goal of adopting nod implementing information technology in the organization. The main purpose of allowing interconnection of the clinician is to allow information to be portable fro clinicians to clinicians, and from clinicians to clients. This will be achieved through integration of interoperable infrastructure to aid healthcare providers to get access critical information while making c clinical decisions. 

3. Personalization of care

The organization will adopt consumer-centric to help clients to manage their wellness and help patients make informed decisions concerning their health. The organization will achieve this goal by encouraging the use of personal health records among consumers. The institution will also institute policies to help consumers make informed choices. They will be offered opportunities to select their clinicians.

4. Improving the health of the general population.

The role of the institution to participate in efforts to improve the health of the general population is imperative. Improvement of general public health depends on timely collection of information, accurate and comprehensive decision by physicians. The organization will synchronize its operation to incorporate national standards and guidelines (http://www.ama-cmeonline.com).

Implementation of EHR

The first step in the implementation of HER will be to understand how the institution functions in the current condition and then conceptualization of how functions and operations of the organization will be improved by the adoption of the new technology.  This need assessment process will help the organization strategically plan on the basis of informed facts.  Implementation of EHR is expected to impact positively the practice of the organization. The technology is expected to support effective interactions between physicians, patients and their family members.

Selection of HER

The EHR to be adopted by the institution will be based on the need assessment conducted on the 12 key points of services in a health institution. A thorough analysis of the available software and hardware will be conducted.  The EHR adopted will be streamlined to fit in the existing practice management. The technology will be sourced from “certified technology.” A certified technology is a complete EHR that has met the requirements used in the definition of a qualified EHR or a combination of modules that have been tested and certified.  In order to facilitate quick and comprehensive adoption of the technology, the institution will acquire a “complete EHR”

EHR hardware

An EHR requires three categories of hardware. They include clients’ computers, servers and devices such as scanners and printers. The most critical process in the selection of EHR is on the choice of hosting to be used by the organization. There are three hosting options that include self, outsourced and use of software as a service. Each of these hosting options has its advantages disadvantages. Given the disadvantages of self and outsourced hosting, the organization will use software as a service to host its EHR. Software as a service is one of the recent deliver model that has gained popularity. The institution will obtain software from the internet and use it as a service. The institution will not incur the expenses of maintaining such a host. This option also eliminates the need for serves and their associated expenses.  The institution will be required to subscribe rather than paying for the entire license.  The vendor of the software will be charged with maintenance and upgrade of the software thereby reducing the cost that would have been incurred in updating the software.   Software for service module requires less customization options thereby reducing time spent by decision makers on making decisions. Staffs will not be required to install a lot of hardware. This minimizes the need to train staffs on the new technology. The staffs will only be trained on how to access the software online and how to use it. However, the module will demand the institution to have a high-quality internet. It is also highly dependent on the vendor which may reduce its customization features.

EHR staffing

The organization has to consider the requirements caused by adoption of the new technology. The new technology will require certain competencies. The organization will conduct a need assessment to identify potential impacts of technology on staffing requirements. All medical and no-medical staffs involved directly in the provision of healthcare will be required to familiarize themselves with the software. This will be done within  three months window which will be referred to as the” induction period.” At the end of the induction period, the organization will conduct a need assessment to identify which aspects of the technology will the staffs be trained.

Role assigning

For the successful implementation of the plan, it is fundamental to assign strategic role of the plan to certain individual who will be assigned the responsibility of transiting to digital management of health records. Three main positions of the lead physician, project manager and analyst will be filled at the beginning of the implementation stage.  The lead physician is expected to o guide the organization through the process of implementing the plan. The physician is expected to offer the necessary leadership in the execution of the plan.  The project manager will work in liaison with the software provider and other key stakeholder in the plan to ensure the project is implemented on time and within the allocated resources. Analyst will be assigned the responsibility of configuring the software and developing any document of standard operating procedure. The analyst will be assisted by three staffs to ensure they create the required template and loading the required list into the EHR.  The team will also be responsible of “building” of the technology. This is the process of entering the data and configuring the software so as it can fit the specific requirement of the institution. The process involves developing a list of internal elements of the software.  The list of elements will include:

Demographic from practice management (PMS)

Digital order entry (DOE)

Treatment regiment/protocols

Standing orders

Billing chart

Medication management setting


After the key preparation steps for the implementation of the plan, the organization will engage in the full implementation of the plan. The preparation stage as discussed above included the selection of the software and hardware, developing system build, preloading data and procedure and workflow analysis.

The preparation stage will lay the foundation for the implementation of the plan. The lead physician in collaboration with the project manager will decide whether the plan will be implemented in staged phases or once.  The implementation steps will include:


The staffs will be trained by the vendor of the software on the basic functionality of the software. The training will be in the form of workshops to be conducted by the vendor and online manuals that will be availed to all the staffs.  The training period will be an average of 20-30 minutes per staff for a period of three days.   Staffs will be trained in batches grouped by the lead physician to ensure there is continuity in the provision of services.  After the training, the participating staffs will sit for a competency test to assess their preparedness and knowledge in the use of the technology.

4. Work flows and orders

The end of the first phase will open the stage for the stepwise implementation of the plan. The go live period will be the period beginning from when the first client will be served using the new technology until when all the component of EHR will be operational. This period will take three months to ensure the full benefits of the technology are realized within the shortest period. A vendor representative will be required to offer practical assistance to staffs during the initial implementation stage. At this stage, the implementing team will identify challenges arising from the use of the technology. After realizing the challenges, the implementing team is expected to develop counter measures to mitigate the challenges.

3. Visit documentation

At this stage, EHR will be used to document progress notes, procedure notes, assessment and diagnostic plan.  This will make the beginning of the flow fledged use of EHR in the institution.

In conclusion, electronic health record technology will be used to revolutionize service provision in the institution. The technology will reduce medical errors by connecting the activities of healthcare staffs involved in the care of a particular customer. The technology will be implemented in phase out stages that will include the preparation stage, training, work flows and orders, and visit documentation. The preparation stage will include selection of the implementing team, choice of hardware and software and building technology. The preparation phase will be followed by the implementation phase which will involve the introduction of the technology in all the key point of work flow.


Spector, B. (2010). Implementing organizational change: Theory into practice (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Borkowski, N. (2005). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Glaser P. & Salzberg (2011). The strategic application of information technology in health care organizations. John Wiley & sons, inc. San Francisco, USA.

Health information technology. Retrieved from http://www.ama-cmeonline.com On 25/5/2013.

Health care information technology(HIT). Retrieved from  http://www.nyhealthcarecommission.org on 25/5/2013

Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:27

Healthcare Cost For Seniors

Healthcare Cost For Seniors

 Research Question:  Why do seniors with stable retirement incomes have their premiums keep going up?

 Working thesis statement

 Seniors with stable retirement incomes have their premiums keep going up.  In the United States, health care costs have been known to be retirement killers; it threatens to consume retirees’ savings.   As Americans grow old, healthcare costs surge leading to, uncomfortable retirement times.  Many individuals leave their jobs shortly before the age of 65, an age whereby most of the old age ailments kick in, or they become severe. Health care cost is rising more than the wages.  Old age individuals are known to incur the highest health care costs than the other group of individuals.  Even with the Medicare programs, this set of individuals still face enormous strains under healthcare costs.  Seniors spend a lot of money out of their pockets to pay for their medical expenses, which implies higher costs than their total household income.  These expenses vary according to the illness of concern.

The worst part of this is that these costs   are projected to further go high in the future irrespective of the expected fall in the future retirement benefits.  The national health care spending was averaged at $8,402 per person in the year 2010; 72% higher than in the earlier ten years when it was approximately $4,878 and nearly  three times $2,854 of the 1990 levels.  Between 2000 and 2010, a 6 % growth of health care spending per person was witnessed; much higher than the 2.4% inflation rate. This indicates that these costs continue rising and it is even worst because it mostly affects old aged individuals irrespective of their stable retirement incomes. Therefore, effective solutions need to be implemented to help seniors comfortably meet their medical expenditures, and enjoy their retirement lives.

 Research Plan

 I am going to conduct my research by examining various factors that contribute to the rising healthcare costs for the seniors.  The first step is to access the nature of illnesses associated with old age.  The second step will involve assessment of the Medicare premium policies pertaining to old individuals.

  1.  For my introduction,        I plan to explain healthcare costs and its implications to the seniors. 
  2.  My working thesis will be seniors with stable retirement incomes have their premiums keep going up. As Americans grow old, healthcare costs surge leading to, uncomfortable retirement times. Old age individuals are known to incur the highest health care costs than the other group of individuals. Even with the Medicare programs, this set of individuals still face enormous strains under healthcare costs.  The present high health costs are even expected to go higher in the future with the projected reduction in retirement benefits.  Therefore, effective solutions need to be implemented to help seniors comfortably meet their medical expenditures, and enjoy their retirement lives.
  3.  Observation of the healthcare costs for the seniors will be done based on the nature of their illnesses.  For instance, whether chronic or acute illnesses.
  4.  The impact of the illnesses associated with seniors on the healthcare premiums will then be observed.
  5.    A conclusion will be drawn from the nature of illnesses exhibited by the seniors and its implications on the healthcare premiums.  This will be suggestive of the appropriate step that ought to be taken.


Bankrate.com, (2013). Health Care for Retirees. Retrieved From, http://www.bankrate.com/finance/retirement/health-care-costs-a-huge-retirement-factor-1.aspx  On May 24, 2013.

 HM Revenues & Customs, (2012). Tax and National Insurance after State Pension Age.  Retrieved From, http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/pensioners/paying-retire.html  On May 24, 2013.

Senior Site, (2012). Growing Healthcare Costs. Retrieved From, http://www.seniorsite.com/finance/growing-health-care-costs-threaten-to-consume-retirees-savings.asp  On May 24, 2013.

Published in Education
Tuesday, 10 December 2013 11:24

Expansion in Different Companies

Expansion in Different Companies


 Different companies employ different strategies in expansion. For some entities, expansion is a pertinent organizational target. In contrast, expansion serves as a platform for enahcning revenue generation n. In the presented case, the company seeks to expand its activities to the international scene. . Which such a business strategy is always characterized by uncertainties, there are numerous positive aspects. This analysis focuses on the different aspects of the company’s strategy. For instance, the pertinent aspects on competitiveness have been put into perspective.

Remaining competitive

For the business, there are various pertinent considerations about competitiveness. The first component pertains to the prices charged for the different products from this organization. Since the company specializes in the manufacture of furniture its prices must be competitive compared to other entities in this industry. Consequently, it is massively pertinent to incorporate prices into the strategic formulation framework (Hood, 2012). Apart from prices, quality of products is also an essential perspective with regard to the company’s framework for competitiveness. The standard of products must conform to international standards for the company to remain competitive. Without emphasizing on quality, the company can struggle immensely in terms of keeping in touch with the main rivals. Another consideration concerns the marketing strategy employed by the company. It is massively essential that the marketing strategy conforms to the organizational goals. This will tremendously enhance the company’s competitiveness and strategic efficiency.

Competing in the International Market

Based on the research, the company can compete effectively in the international market. There are various factors behind this. Firstly, the company has been highly successful in the American market. Since its establishment, the company has grown remarkably in all fronts including its revenues and market reach. Due to such growth, the company has the relevant platforms for excellence in the international market (Gerber, 2012). It is also notable that the company has an excellent capacity to deliver high quality furniture. Such an attribute is massively essential in the enhancement of performance in international markets. These dynamics show that the company can compete effectively in the international market.

Primary Factors for the Decision

There are various primary factors that have led to the decision about the high level of competitiveness for the company. The first factor is the company’s human resource capacity. The organization has many employees. This forms an excellent framework for an excellent human resource system (Jeffs, 2008). The second primary factor encompasses the company’s need for expansion. It is essential that the firm ventures into different markets in order to meet its targets.

Facing Potential Disputes

There are skeptics who can easily dispute the decision for the company to expand its operations to the international market. In the event of such a dispute, it is essential to put the viability of the decision into perspective. The company will benefit immensely from the international operations. For instance, the international market is highly valuable because it is minimally affected by economic recessions. The different economic indicators are also considerably stable in the international market. This will provide a brilliant platform for stability (Thompson, 2010). The demand of the company’s products is also likely to be enhanced when it ventures into the international market. All these attributes put the viability of the decision into perspective. Such a framework would be massively helpful in averting any dispute concerning the decision to enter the international market.

Evaluating the Global Marketplace in the Future

While the global market is characterized by exemplary potential, it is essential to establish a framework for evaluating the global marketplace. One of the evaluative strategies is an assessment of the company’s global market share. The market share can be an excellent indicator of the company’s success or efficiency in the new marketplace. A large market share will underline success while a small market share will depict minimal efficiency. Apart from the market share, another evaluative strategy pertains to the sales value in the global market. In essence, high revenues will be an indicator of positive performance in the international market. However, low revenues will indicate minimal effectiveness of the company in the international market (Cole, 2003). The efficiency of the strategic plan will also depict the level of success attained by the company in the global market. Through this blueprint, the evaluative framework will streamline the company’s strategy for operations.


The analysis narrows down on the company’s venture into the international market. In order to enhance its revenues, the company must expand its market. Considering the uncertainty characterizing the American markets, it is essential for the organization to evaluate other markets. The levels of viability for the international market are considerably high. The company needs to devote adequate resources into the framework for international markets. Adequate resources will cater for the actualization of the different stages of the blueprint. The primary factors for this decision have also been exemplified in the analysis. For instance, the company has sufficient resources for expanding into the international market. Additionally, the plan is characterized by high levels of financial viability.


Cole, G. A. (2003). Strategic management, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning

Gerber, D. (2012). Global competition, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hood, N. (2012). Strategies in global competition, London: Taylor & Francis

Jeffs, C. (2008). Strategic management, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Thompson, J. L. (2010). Strategic management: Awareness and change, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Published in Business Studies
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