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Items filtered by date: November 2013

Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:55

Organization Research Method

Organization Research Method


Abstract:The paper evaluates the organization research methods. It gives its properties together with their implications. There are five factors in regard to organizational research methods. In the methodology, the study uses review centric research approach to create a model with five factors, comprising political properties, personal properties, ethical properties, historical properties, and organizational properties that influence the choice of a research methodology to use. This research approach integrates the “interpretive paradigm” in which a rich description of each factor in this organization context comes. The study findings indicate that a combination of political, ethical, personal, historical, and organizational factors, comprise of an interconnected system of unavoidable influences on choice of research methods.The research has limitation in the view that there was no certain organization for evaluation to determine the applicability of these claims. The study relies on the past literature rather than coming up with a novel criterion. In terms of implications, researchers in an organization can use the findings from this study to make decisions on the research methods to use in a research. In addition, they can use the findings to determine the data collection methods to follow. The model the study uses is original and adds value to this area of study as many other researchers have also researched on this area.

Keywords:Organization Research, Personal Properties, Ethical Properties, Historical Properties, Organizational Properties, Political Properties

1           Introduction

The organizational research field exhibits three trends: methodological inventiveness, a multi paradigmatic profile and widening boundaries. The choice of methods depends with the norms of practice, epistemological concerns and objectives [[1]], [[2]], [[3]]. In addition, personal evidential, ethical, political historical and organizational factors influence research method selection [[4]]. This paper notes that those factors comprise of an arrangement of inevitable pressures and choice of methods contextualization contains 3 inferences [[5]], [[6]]. The first one is that it is not easy to claim that the selection of methods is solely depended on relations to the purpose of the study [[7]], [[8]], [[9]]. The choice of methods entails a wide, complex mutually dependent various reflections. Second, it is not easy to perceive an approach as simply a method for breaking realism into spotlight [5], [[10]]. The choice of methods acts as framers for the data window for observing phenomena and they influence the interpretative schemas together with theoretical development [[11]], [[12]]. Third, therefore, the competency of a research entails coherent addressing of personal, evidential, ethical, political, historical and organizational factors relating to an investigation [[13]], [4].

2           Research Materials and Methods  

Recently combining research methods, for example, became increasingly essential in particular when pursuing the goal of gaining “rich theoretical insights [[14]].”One form for “developing new theoretical insights” is the review centric research approach in which a researcher evaluates “existing theory and research”. However, the argument may be stated including a case study research findings based on the real world observation of practitioners and organizations [[15]]. In the research presented here, the focus is n combining the most imperative “previously established studies and concepts” noted in the scholarly text the foundation on which a synthesis comes “advance the knowledge we have on the matter”. In this study, the most significant success factors helping in the present business or organizational situation to build goals to achieve a competitive advantage. This research approach integrates the “interpretive paradigm” in which a rich description of each factor in this organization context comes [[16]].

Figure 1.1 Components of organizational Research

The significance of an organizational action is articulate in a causal model. This research comprises an in-depth assessment and elucidation of the goal and each factor and the organizational action that can be derived. This paper underpins the need for investing in certain business areas for expansion of the organizational effectiveness.

3           Results and Discussion        

  1. Model of The Organization Research method
  2. Evaluation of Organizational Properties
  3. Mythology and Research of Historical Properties
  4. Levels of Ethical Properties
  5. Satisfying Personal Passion
  6. Issues of Political Power
  7. Establishing Objective Negotiation

Figure 1.2 Model of Organization Research Method

The fieldwork logistics will have extensive influence from the properties of the focal organization like location, size, and whether it is a professional bureaucracy or a commercial organization [[17]]. The choice of a method may as well be profoundly subject to the research site’s stability. Methods that are inflexible or predetermined are less apposite with a changing organizational context [[18]]. Nonetheless, one significant modern aspect of the majority of large size and medium organizational entails the scale and occurrence of the function and structure transformation [[19]]. For instance, a pilot research of big British organizations established that they were experiencing considerable transformations on average, every three years a third engaged in large scale reengineering yearly [14]. Though these studies were focusing on the organizational repercussions, they have effect on the method of research [1]. For instance, a question like in relation to someone’s title faces a mystified smile since a majority of managers has varied responsibilities changing recurrently. It can be problematic to establish a frame for sampling or a record of foremost sneaks or construct a firm’s chart [15]. On various incidences and diverse settings, re-interviewing has had to be done to establish whether they assumed a different role and substantiated the line of questioning [[20]]. Increase in getting chief services from other countries, and the growth of types of networks in partnership of inter-organizations imply that partner organization members may not be sure which organizations or project is under questioning. Taking of static measurements for establishing co-variation has less relevance [[21]]. This renders process theoretical perspectives, based on contextualized event sequence analysis extremely appropriate [[22]].

A research field history conditions modern-day method decisions by offering experience, evidence base, departure points, benchmarks, and traditions [12]. As a result, the Hawthorne studies’ ghosts persists haunting researchers in the 21st century, after making long lasting contributions to terminology, methodology and research agendas. In biomedical and natural science, new research is building on earlier work rendering it outdated [[23]]. Administrative study is not collective in this view hence researchers have been ignoring it at their own peril. For instance, although research into traits of leadership became unnecessary in the 1950s, considering inconclusive and contradictory findings, analogous studies come up in popular, professional, and academic literature [[24]]. Therefore, organizational research may be advised to permit historical experiences, findings, conceptualizations and frameworks to influence modern day research focus choices and suitable methods [[25]].

Research in organizations has attracted an increased moral inquiry level [[26]]. Many bodies have long-standing research moral codes, although there is limited evidence or no confirmation for suggesting regular disregarding of codes. Nonetheless, Research Government Framework applies the biomedical research standard to organizational research in social care and health, even where clients or patients are not a party [[27]]. This comprises of an expanded process of application regulated by home and multisite ethics of study, committees, dealing with informed consent concerns, respond confidentiality and withdrawal right [2].

Researchers regularly evaluates subjects in whom they contain vested attention, by means of methods they possess training or knowledgeable, and showing satisfaction [[28]]. Other researchers take pleasure in a comprehensive one on one encounter along with the difficulty to identify prototypes and qualitative data order. Other researchers get satisfied in finding out at the computer screen associations in quantitative data sets [[29]]. The training and skills of a researcher can henceforth influence research topic choice as well as how its investigation. Neophyte researchers should avoid allowing personal preference along with a bias to interfere on technical decisions regarding methods of research. Researchers should have familiarity with guilt regarding individual passions and beliefs, in relation to the acquired, practiced and honed skills [11]. Desertion from the principle that relationships with participants of research taint data [[30]], stated that the societal networks of a researcher together with the personal skills are crucial for design and sustenance of attractive organizational research. Though friends and acquaintances’ contributions in relation to accessing organizations as research sites and gathering relevant inside information may be extensively valued, these concerns are unrecognized in published accounts as factors that influence the design of a research [[31]].

Since organizations are political systems [[32]], it is not easy for a researcher to revere conservative norms on neutrality of the observer by avoiding power and political issues entanglement. Customarily, researchers engage in political measures, in probably 4 ways. These are when bargaining on the objective of the researcher, acquiring consent to access participants, aligning with stakeholders groups and when trying to publish findings [[33]].

Often researchers find negotiation of their purposes with the gatekeepers with the capability of authorizing or obstructing their work. Gatekeepers here imply all people who can make a decision on whether or not to research can take place in an area. This can be problematic, in at least two respects, from the perspective of methods. First, in the majority of organizational setting, the field researcher may come across many people with the capability to permit or disallow access to research. Second, the investigator may habitually have a choice in relation to the approach of gatekeepers. For instance, the most senior or the most or those with close relation, it may not be advisable politically to engage an excess of one gatekeeper concurrently [26]. Nonetheless, gatekeepers may make their consent reliant and the free enquiry spirit endangered in the event that certain topics and themes are downcast, and others encouraged. One solution entails the overt description of a study in bland terms while wording instruments of data collection for incorporation of interrelated themes. There is tailoring of observation and document collecting as required [[34]]. This approach raises ethical issues with linkage to suitable degrees of honesty and openness on the researcher’s part, as well as the levels to which respondents and respondents and gatekeepers may be hoodwinked in relation to the intentions of the investigator. This implies that entirely informed consent may be unavailable. For instance, Bhattachaya [8], in his study on perceptions of management on organization politics, claim that topic is too sensitive to be used for direct investigations. Therefore, researchers ought to conceal the term politics with a suitable euphemism. Financial support can be related to investigator’s willingness to tackle definite questions, subjects and issues in a given way. Failing to meet the terms of these prospects has expected inferences for the study grant submissions [[35]]. These may be amplified when backing entities maintain that administrative research admission secured prior to release of financial support [[36]].

4           Discussion of The Model

While the attributes of organizational research are acceptable, there are challenges or intricacies; they interfere with the selection of methods to be evaded via keen planning [[37]]. Nonetheless, as illustrated in figure 1.2, the aspects, combined instead comprise an interconnected structure of unavoidable weights on selection of study techniques. Contextualization of the choice of methods in this network of weight possesses about 3 suggestions. First, it is not easy to maintain a researcher’s model as an impartial spectator [[38]]. In addition, the selection of a supporting archetype is a politically instigated act. Secondly, it is not easy to maintain a replica of the research process, which the method is reliant on links to objectives, the restrictions, as well as advantages of the approach objectively considered alongside others [[39]]. The paper shows that the choice of methods is a multi-criterion decision, which involves convoluted, interconnected and iterative considerations series. In this standpoint, method is part of a parcel agreement, an essential constituent of a wide-ranging study scheme whereby in the quest for certain objectives in a certain context, various factors combined in an articulate way. These factors include evidential, personal, ethical, political, organizational, epistemological, theoretical factors.

Thirdly, it is not easy to maintain a perception of technique as neutral method for focusing on realism [[40]]. Formed by a wide-ranging technique structure, the data gap via which organizational events are useful [[41]]. The choice of methods establishes the concealed together with the documented hence connecting personal, evidential, ethical, political, historical and organizational aspects with the advancement of both practical along with theoretical finale [30]. As a result, these aspects can be taken as data instead of as aspects of the study background of problematical issue. Reflexivity supporters insist on honesty and openness in relation to the researcher’s identity and position, together with crucial self-evaluation [31]. This argument proposes that spontaneous evaluation ought to be expanded to integrate argument of the aspects, which influence the choice of methods for a certain project. This is because; these manipulate and contribute to towards evidence base for construction of conclusions.

From this study, key lesson is that norms of practice, epistemological concerns and objectives shape the choice of methods. It gets influence from personal evidential, ethical, political historical and organizational factors. This paper notes that those aspects comprise of a scheme of unavoidable pressures, interconnected to bring out the decision.

5           Conclusion

In a study technique, competency has been articulated conventionally and barely, in terms of choice of methods that are in line with the topic and objectives of the research whilst shunning or determining the infuriating realistic fieldwork concerns. It can be concluded that a method’s competency in a method ought to encompass the ability of coherently and systematically addressing, the organizational, personal, evidential, and ethical, political, and historical influences. The aspects of the organizational study scenery or background should be considered. In the study, a research convention or record pertinent to a certain research should be followed. The unavoidable politicization of the researcher’s role in an organizational should be put into consideration [[42]]. All researches face ethical issues and the restrictions enforced by an increasing anxiety with these principles ought to be controlled. Audience related and theoretical issues in translation of evidence into practice are also critical. Lastly, personal preferences and biases in regard to method choice play a noteworthy role in the research procedures [16].


First, I am sincerely grateful to my supervisor who has greatly offered me with support all through the research process. The supervisor has been patient and gave me the choices to work my own way. I attribute my degree to his effort and encouragement since, without him, this research would not have been written or completed. I also thank my fellow students for helping me complete the research as they have provided me with some good arguments concerning the topic.


[1] Buchanan, D. (2003). Demands, instabilities, manipulations, careers: The lived experience of driving change. Human Relations, 56(6), 663-684.

[2]  Butler, R. (1997). Stories and experiments in social inquiry. Organization studies, 12(6 ), 927- 948.

[3]  Said, E. (1978). Orientalism: Orient in the western conceptions. London: Penguin

[4]  Colvin, G, & Charm, R. (1999). Why CEOs fail. Fortune. 139(12), 69-78.

[5]  Eden, D. (2003). Critical management studies and the management academy. Journal of management academy, 46, 390-394.

[6]  Morgan, G, & Burrell, G. (1979). Organizational analysis and sociological paradigms. London: Heinemann

[7]  Akker, J. (2002). World-wide protection of academic freedom. Academe, 88(3), 44-45.

[8] Bhattachaya, K. (2007). Consenting to the consent form: The fixed and fluid understandings between the researcher and the researched. Qualitative inquiry, 13(8), 1095-1115.

[9]   Truman, C. (2003). The ruling research production relations and ethics. Sociological research online, 8(1).

[10] Herman, S, & Egri, C. (2000). Leadership in the North American Environmental sector: Leadership styles, values and contexts of environmental leaders and their organizations. Journal of management academy, 43(4), 571-604.

[11] Cassell, J. (1978). Risk and benefit to subjects of fieldwork. American sociologists, 13, 134-143.

[12] Hassard, J. (1988). Overcoming hermeticism in organization theory: Paradigm incommensurability alternative. 41, 247-259.

[13] Bishop, R. (2005). Freeing ourselves from neocolonial domination in research: a kaupapa Maori approach to creation of knowledge. Thousand Oaks, 109-138.

[14] Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research Kathleen M. Eisenhardt. The Academy of Management Review, 14, 532-550.

[15] Wray, B, & Brewis, J. (2009). Researching ethics: Towards a more reflexive critical management studies. Organizational studies, 29(11), 1-20.

[16] Yanow, D, & Hatch, J. (2008). Methodology by metaphor: Ways of seeing in research and painting. Organizational studies, 29, 23-44.

[17] Boser, S. (2007). Power, ethics and the IRB; Dissonance over human participant review of participatory research. Qualitative inquiry, 13(8), 1060-1064.

[18] Abolafia, M, Carr, J, & Brower, R. (2000). On improving qualitative methods in public administration research. Administration and society, 32, 363-397.

[19]  Schein, E. (1990). Organizational Culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109-119.

[20] Buchanan, D. (1999). The logic of political action: an experiment with the epistemology of the particular. British journal of management, 10, 73-88.

[21] Buchanan, D, & al. (1988). Getting on getting on, getting out and getting back. In Bryman Alan (Ed) Doing research in organizations, London: Routledge, 53-67.

[22]  Lincoln, Y. (1995). Emerging qualitative criteria. Qualitative inquiry, 1, 275-289.

[23]  Shusterman, R, Bohman, J., & Hiley, D. (1991). The interpretive turn. New York: Cornell University Press.

[24] Lomas, J, & Denis, J. (2003). Convergent evolution: the academic and policy costs of collaborative research. Journal of health services research and policy, 8(2), 1-5.

[25] Buchanan, D, & Bryman, A. (2007). Contextualizing methods choice in organizational research. Organizational research methods, 10(3), 483-501.

[26]  Adams, G. (1994). Blindsided by the elephant. Public administration Review, 54(1), 77-83.

[27]  Guba, E, & Lincoln, Y. (1989). Ethics: The failure of positivist science. The review of higher education, 12(3), 221-240.

[28]  Eden, D. (2003). Critical management studies and the management academy. Journal of management academy, 46, 390-394.

[29] Ven, Van de, & Astley, W. (1979). Central perspectives and debates in organization theory. Administrative science quarterly, 31, 78-108.

[30] Dukerich, J., & Dutton, J. (2006). The relational foundation of research: An underappreciated dimension of interesting research. Journal of management academy, 49(1), 21-26.

[31]  Mauthner, M, & Edwards, E. (2002). Ethics and feminist research: Practice and theory.

[32]  Schultz, M, & Hatch, J. (2002). Organizational identity dynamics. Human relations, 55, 989-1019.

[33]  Huczynski, A, & Buchanan, D. (2004). Images of influence: Twelve angry men and thirteen days. Journal of management inquiry, 13(4), 312-323.

[34]  Hatch, J. (1996). The role of the researcher: An analysis of narrative position in organization theory. Management inquiry journal, 5, 359-374.

[35] Boje, D. (1991). The storytelling organization: A study of story performance in an office supply firm. Administrative science quarterly, 36(1), 106-126.

[36]  Bishop, R. (2005). Freeing ourselves from neocolonial domination in research: a kaupapa Maori approach to creation of knowledge. Thousand Oaks, 109-138.

[37] Deetz, S. (1996). Describing differences in approaches to organization science: Rethinking Morgan, Burrell and their legacy. Organization science, 7(2), 191-207.

[38] Lincoln, Y. (1995). Emerging qualitative criteria. Qualitative inquiry, 1, 275-289.

[39] Towler, J. & Curray, S. (2003) “Research Methods in Management and Organizational Research: Towards Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques” In: Tashakkori, A. & Teddie, C. Eds. Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

[40] Wray, B, & Collins, H. (2005). Discriminating ethics, Human relations. 58(6), 799-824.

[41] Barry, D, & Elmes, M. (1997). Strategy retold: towards a narrative view if strategy discourse. Academy of management review, 22(2), 429-452.

[42] Wray, B, & Brewis, J. (2009). Researching ethics: Towards a more reflexive critical management studies. Organizational studies, 29(11), 1-20.

Published in Management
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:52

Australia Asylum and Refugee Policy

        Australia Asylum and Refugee Policy

On august 2012, Expert Panel on Asylum Seekers released a report that gave several recommendations aimed at preventing dangerous journeys across the sea by asylum seekers. Refugee council on refugee raised questions about the report.

Australia commitment to implement protection measures recommended by the expert panel on asylum seekers has taken a slow pace compared to the steps toward deterrence. Parliamentary debates and political debates have paid much attention to recommendations that support forced transfer of asylum seekers to Nauru Island.  The decision to implement deterrence recommendations was a result of the increased number of asylum seekers arriving in boats. However, the legislations do not seem to affect the number of asylum seekers arriving in the country.

According to Knott (2013), since the inception of the report three thousand refugees have arrived. The government has instituted measures to increase refugee places from the current 13,500 to the recommended 20,000. The government has committed financial support toward increasing people smuggling across borders. The country has been reluctant on implementing 2011 Malaysia agreement. It has also acted slowly in supporting regional cooperation.  No efforts have been made on implementing recommendation 16 that requires the government to review the status determination. There no progress made on linking offshore and onshore component refugee policies.  

The implementation of these recommendations has been high politicized. This is not uncommon as refugee policies have been vehicles through governments have risen to power. The labour party, which won the 2007 elections, abolished pacific solutions that were instituted by the liberal government. The government has embarked on sending asylum seekers to the island. The policy has also under the right watch of international bodies such as the united nation commission on refugees, which has pushed the government to loosen its policies.


Australia’s refugee and humanitarian program 2012-2013.  Refugee council of Australia. Retrieved from  http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au on 2/5/2013


Matthew K. (2013). 7 months on: report card on asylum seeker policy. Retrieved from http://www.crikey.com.au on 2/5/2013.

Published in History
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:45

Family Systems Approach

 Family Systems Approach

Solution-Focused Therapy


Family Systems Approach to therapy is founded on the assumption that an individual is not understood fully apart from the family system (Corey, 2012).  From the systems perspective, the basic principle of this approach is that a change in one part of a system will create a change or changes in other parts of the system. In this context, if a family changes in significant ways, the changes will affect the individual. In the same way, the family unit is affected if individual change.  Therefore, the family therapist diagnoses a problem and provides solutions based on observation of the interactions and relationships within the family system.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Studying and treating a family as a system has several advantages (Richardson, 2010). First, involving the entire family in goal setting tends to improve the effectiveness of treatment since the systems or relationships that may have been the cause of the problem have been remedied. Secondly, certain approaches of the systems approach such as the solution-focused approach train family individuals on identification of problems. This provides long-term solutions because it enables families to recognize bad relationships and hence prevent problems.  Thirdly, the family systems therapy utilizes several therapeutic approaches.  Therefore, it is flexible to a variety of situations. In terms of disadvantages, it places too much focus on homeostasis at the expense of change. Second, it focuses too much on patterns at the expense of unpredictability. Third, it focuses on the system and neglects individual difference. Fourth, it puts the family therapist outside the system in search of the problem.

How Size of the Family and Ages of Its Members Affect This Approach

The size of the family and age of the family members influence systems therapy (O’Connell, 2012). For instance, it is not easy to study relationships if the family is extremely large. Diagnosing patterns of interactions is very difficult to the counselor. In this situation, a counselor may have to resort to individual focused approaches. In this respect, counselors find it difficult to conduct counseling activities among extended families.    

How Your Personal Characteristics Influence Theoretical Orientation

The unique feature about the Brief Solution-Focused therapy is that it focuses on solutions (Richardson, 2010). Its aim is to help clients obtain their desired outcomes by eliciting solutions to their problems. My orientation is solution-focused, in which a therapist begins the counseling process by identifying the strengths of the client and helps the client in recognizing when the symptoms disappear or diminish. By utilizing this moment s of symptom abatement as the starting point, the counselor works with the client to reduce the moments of depression and anxiety.

I believe that the individual clients are experts in identifying their own problems.  This is the essence of the solution-focused therapy. In line with the implementation requirements for characteristics, certain characteristics add to the effectiveness of solution-focused treatment. In this respect, one characteristic will stands out is flexibility.  Many of the solution-procedures  comprises a carefully crafted questions developed to elicit the strengths of the client involved and the resources required to guide the client  in deciding how best to use those resources to achieve the desired treatment objectives. Important behaviors that a counselor should exhibit in order to be efficient include advice giving, education, confrontation, indoctrination, etc.

Collaborating With a Therapist from Different Theoretical Orientations

I believe that the ideal method to learn new ideas and get exposed to new situations is getting out of the comfort zone.  This is the way that I have set myself to learn different cultures. Living outside my comfort zone allows me to encounter diverse experiences and thoughts. This kind of believe helps me articulate my opinion of the world and anchor my beliefs in cultures different from mine.  In the same way, solution-focused therapy approach requires a therapist to work in broad settings. The counselor works with people of different cultures, ethnicities, and socio-economic status.  Therefore, I am flexible to the idea of working with therapists with different theoretical orientations.   By being open to new ways of treatment, I can gain from knowledge sharing that will occur. In the solution-focused orientation to therapy provision, counselor personal characteristics are not viewed as fundamental. Therefore, the solution-focused therapist is flexible enough to engage in discussions and work with other whose orientation may be different.  The guiding principle is the goals and objectives that are foundational to counseling.

Therapists from Different Theoretical Orientations Working Together

Benefits and Drawbacks

People, live, think, and behave in different ways (O’Connell, 2012). Therefore, collaboration of counselors from different theoretical orientation has benefits and drawbacks. In terms of the benefit, collaborating efforts provides an effective solution in situations that are complex and where one theoretical orientation does not work on its own.  Such scenarios require collaborative approaches to therapy.  For instance, in families where members have irreconcilable differences and are not willing to communicate, approaches other than the family systems may be utilized in this situation. The other benefit is that counselors are exposed to continuous learning through knowledge sharing that occurs when teams of counselors with different theoretical orientations work together (Richardson, 2010).  In terms of drawbacks, working in teams may not be convenient for clients who may not like to share their personal information with people. In such cases, a single therapist may be required.  The other drawback is that decision making efficiency may be impaired because counselors may fail to agree on the best therapy to apply in certain complex situations.  However, because of the diverse nature of human behavior, collaborating adds value to the both the counselor and the client.


Family therapy provides solutions to problems based on consideration of the family relationships (O’Connell, 2012). It is comprehensive and so is accurate in diagnosing problems and providing solutions (Richardson, 2010).  It has advantages and disadvantages. However, it has several therapeutic sub-approaches, making it the richest in terms of flexibility and variety of solutions. The solution-focused therapy is one of the approaches under the umbrella of family systems approach. In line with the affiliation with the systems theory, it is best suited for offering solutions while in collaboration with counselors who conform to different theoretical orientations.   Therapists who embrace the family systems approach are flexible and open to learning from the client. The clients diagnose their problems and provide solutions to them. Therefore, the complications that arise from ordinary team tasks may be unlikely with the family systems.


Corey, G. (2012) “Case Approach to Counseling & Psychotherapy (8th ed.)” Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole

Richardson, R.W. (2010) “Couples in Conflict: A Family Systems Approach to Marriage Counseling” Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press

O’Connell, B. (2012) “Solution-Focused Therapy” Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Published in Psychology
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:39

Expository Essay

Expository Essay

Speech speed in different regions of Canada shows a wide difference. Rapid speech is found in Montreal and Newfoundland. The essay, “New foundlandese if you Please,” by Diane Mooney shows that all people in Newfoundland talk very fast, and this is given (Mooney, 111). Mooney gives reason to this as they are people who have some Irish root. The same is also true for people in Montreal in that visitors will be quick to notice the quickness as they speak English. This is because of the French language that is the dominant language in this city. Mediterranean and Yiddish communities influence the English spoken in this city (Haldane, 2002).

The city of Montreal is also characterized by a fast way of life, and this can also impact on the speed of speech. Mooney shows that the south region of Newfoundland Island is dominated by the Catholic-Irish who have a unique dialect. This dialect cannot be easily understood by their Anglican –Irish counterparts living on the opposite side of the island. Those at the center of Newfoundland have a confused and mixed dialect.

Those at the West Coast of this region have a slight twang when they speak, and this is a result of the dominant French language spoken in this region. The Montreal Speech compared to the newfound land is much slower as seen in Prince Edward Island (Haldane, 2002). The general way of life in PEI is also relaxed. So the rhetorical question asked is whether the way of life does have an impact of people‘s speech? The answer is yes because culture does impact on the speed of speech used by people belonging to the same culture.


Haldane, M (2002) Speaking of Montreal. McGill Reporter. Retrieved from http://www.mcgill.ca/reporter/06/boberg/ On May 5, 2013

Mooney, D (2003) Newfoundlandese, If You Please.” Acting on Words an Integrated Reader, Rhetoric, and Handbook. Pearson: Toronto, p 110 - 111.

Published in Education
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:34

Theory of Measurement

Theory of Measurement

Characteristics of construct, internal, and external validity

Construct validity occurs in instances where, findings that are in a research show the actual situation with the reality in the world. The main function of construct validity is to transforms conceptual frameworks to practical application in real life. Construct validity in research is critical for analyzing vital issues such as the investigation on the real facts that cause conflicts in a community learning institution (Trochim, & Donnelly, 2008). Perceiving a real life situation has to be done through construct validity (Creswell, 2009). External validity, unlike the construct validity, does not show how the findings of a research can be generalizable. This means that results from a research cannot be applied to another context different from the survey. A high external validity means that the findings from a research can be applied to other contexts. This can be achieved through the use of adequate sample (Cozby, 2012).

External validity can be used in different ways in academic dissertation contexts (Creswell, 2009). For example, policymakers gain a lot from colleges’ dissertation since they can apply the same platform in developing effective policies to deal with practical solutions to community problems (Trochim, & Donnelly 2008). Internal validity prides a basis for evaluating associations and connection between effects and causes. There are many qualitative and quantitative survey studies that are dealing with the analysis of cause and effect. For instance, there are studies that aim to find out the causes of poor management, multiculturalism and political impact among other social issues (Creswell, 2009). Determining the internal validity of a study minimizes the flaws of that study (Cozby, 2012).

Threats to external and construct validity

Both construct, and external validity are faced with various types of threats. The research quality is compromised when the threats are not controlled or prevented. A common threat to both external and construct validity is bias. It happens when the research does not uphold impartiality in the study. External validity is prevented by bias because of the results of a research are not generalizable to other area. Bias also leads to undermining of construct validity because it will not be possible to justify conceptual framework. Sample size is another threat that tampers with the validity of a research. When results are obtained from a small group of people in the population, the findings will not be valid (Creswell, 2009).

How validity issues impact on research

The approach used in research has a major impact on the validity of a research study. Weak mechanisms employed in a research do undermine the research’s validity. Validity can be categorized into construct, internal, and external validity. Construct validly is vital for my study in analyzing conceptual issues. It impacts a lot in determining the quality of my study. I will strengthen external validity by use of a reasonably large size of the sample. Proportional sample size will help me to enhance the external validity of my study and also to prevent bias. A research that aims to study cause and effects so as to generate effective mechanism of solving a problem has to ensure that there is external validity.


Trochim, W, & Donnelly, J. (2008) the research methods knowledge base. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Creswell, J (2009) Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications.

Cozby, P (2012) Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Published in Accounting
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:27



How Well Are Regular Community-Based After School Program Teachers Trained To Work with Students with Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorder

Creswell (2003) presents the four paradigms of research. These are pragmatic, participatory/ advocacy deconstructionist and constructionist and post-positivist. The thinkers of post positivism and positivism view are Mill, Comte, Newton and Popper. Their key points to post positivism and positivism are that meaning and reality can be modeled. There is also need to test and replicate models. The framework further supports the idea that old models can be replaced by new one if they have more explanatory and predictive power than the old ones. This framework tends to be in line with the physical way of defining science and is quantitative in nature (Creswell & Maietta, 2002).

Interpretive and constructivism knowledge are supported by thinkers like Lincoln and Guba, Piaget, Vigotsky and Mertens. They claim that meaning and reality are constructed. Piaget says that this meaning is constructed individually while Vigotsky supported the idea that meaning is constructed as a group or socially. The thinkers also claim that meaning or reality can both be subjective and contextual.

Participatory/ advocacy framework is associated with thinkers like Kemis and Wilkinson, Ferire, Herbermas and Marx. The key points of their arguments are that meaning and reality are socially constructed. Their research work was based on the political agenda and politics. Their arguments were also based on empowerment concerns, oppression, and the voices of marginalized individuals. Their studies tend to be qualitative in nature. Their research types were based on theories like, critical theory, disability inquiry, critical discourses, feminist perspective and queer theory.

Pragmatism according to Creswell (2003) was started by thinkers like Mead, Pierce, Dewey and James. Their key points are that; researcher’s knowledge claim or world view should not be tied to any philosophical point. Instead, they are free to choose any type of methodology which can be mixed methods, quantitative or qualitative based on the best one to address the topic at hand. Their views are practical oriented in terms of solving problems. The pragmatic point of view is more on the use of mixed-method approach that involves both the quantitative and qualitative approaches.

My research topic on how well are regular community-based after school program teachers trained to work with students with Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorders is a topic that addresses a human or social problem. The main problem s includes the insufficient knowledge and skills and among educators in after-school programs in assisting children with special needs especially those with autism and EBD problems. These educators do not also communicate with the regular teachers who are with disabled children in their usual working hours. After school programs also lack resources and facilities to accommodate students with autism and behavioral disorders. This study will explores these issues with the need of finding ways of ensuring that after school programs have qualified educators, the right resources and facilities and the need of regular classroom teachers to communicate with after school teachers with understanding of students with autism and EBD problems and support them.

This study will, therefore, involve with the need to understand and explore the meaning of groups and individuals associate with the social or human challenge. This topic can be studied based on the different views in terms of epistemologies, research paradigm and many others. S Creswell and other scholars have, however, summed these views in four headings as discussed above v (Pragmatism, participatory/ advocacy, constructivism and positivist / post positivist world views) (Creswell 2003).

According to the post-positivist view; the driving aspect of research is to find the causes that determine the outcome. This will mean that I will spend a lot of time in finding out the actual causes that make after school teachers fail to meet the needs of students with autism and EBD problems. Much effort will be the separation of relevant and irrelevant details. In ensuring that the causes are the main reasons for the way things are and not because of other factors not covered in the study (Kluth, & Chandler –Olcott, K2009). This is a reductionist research style that reduces the complexity of the issue at hand into discrete and a small set of ideas. These ideas are used for testing research questions and hypothesis. Using this approach I will begin with a theory relating to my research problem on whether teachers of after-school programs have the skills and knowledge to address the issues facing children with special needs. The causes will help me to either support or reject my hypothesis (Gall, & Borg, 2007).

Social constructivist view is based on the assumption on how people perceive the world around them. This means that people develop subjective meaning and knowledge based on their personal experience. The research goal will be to rely on the views of participants. For my research topic, I will use parents of children with disabilities, the after -school teachers. Regular teachers and after school administrators and staff. I will ask them questions relating to my research questions such as to whether children with special needs are provided for adequately in after school programs if teachers of after school programs have been trained to handle students with autism (Mahoney, Levine, & Hinga, 2010) and Behavioral and emotional disorders and whether the after school programs offer the facilities and resources needed by students with autism and EBD problems. This means that I will use open ended questions in interviewing participants. I will use my background knowledge concerning special education in interpreting the findings from participants and this impacts on the interpretation process (Gall, & Borg, 2007).

Participator/ advocacy view is also known as emancipator. This means that the aim of my research will not only be about the understanding of social phenomena but also changing the setting of the research through the participant’s conditions. The agenda for this research will, therefore, incorporate specific concerns like suppression, alienation, oppression, inequality and empowerment. Based on this perspective, I will allow the participants to shape the research design such as data collection methods, information analysis and questions. This view will help to voice the concerns of disabled children and their parents whose needs are not addressed in after-school programs. Therefore, based on this view, they will have an opportunity of voicing the vital issues that apply to their own lives and how the hope the after-school programs are in future.

Last is the pragmatic view which is about selecting the appropriate strategy based on the nature of the topic for research. Based on this view, I will be free to select either the qualitative or quantitative studies of mixed approach in this study. I will prefer to use the qualitative strategies that will require my interpretation on my observations (Creswell 2003).


Creswell, J & Maietta, R (2002) Qualitative Research', In Handbook of Research Design & Social Measurement. Sage Publications, London.

Cohen, L & Morrison, K (2007) Education Research Methods. London. New York: Routledge.

Gall, M, & Borg, W (2007) Educational research introduction, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Creswell J (2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage

Kluth, P. & Chandler –Olcott, K. (2009). Why Everyone Benefits from including students with

Autism in literacy classrooms. International reading association. 62, 548-557.

Mahoney, J., Levine, M, & Hinga, B. (2010). The Development of the after-school program educators. Through University-Community Partnerships, 14(2), 89–105.

Published in Education
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:17

Occupational Health & Safety

 Occupational Health & Safety
Aims of Occupational Health Surveillance in the Manufacturing Industry
Health is a principal determinant of the quality of life in all environments (Landsbergis, 2010). People place great value on health than any other priorities. A broad range of economic, environmental and social factors including the natural environment, lifestyle, thriving economy, and high standards of education and health all contribute to the quality of life. Protection of human health should be achieved in an environment of industrial, economic, social, and technological change (Gailbraith, 1998). While these changes may bring benefits, they may also bring risks. Protecting and preserving generations, both current and future, is a common aim of governments, communities, and individuals. Protection of health involves analysis of the risks that exist in specific environments, evaluation of interventions, and development of relevant and appropriate management strategies. Risk analysis contributes to decisions aimed at minimizing harm to communities and individuals.
Significance of Occupation Health Risk Assessment
Today, the world is highly aware of the presence of hazardous substances and processes in the environment (Dingdag, Biggs, & Cipolla, 2008). There is an increasing concern about contaminants in food and water and, the presence of toxic pollutants in the air. In addition to these, there are also the hazardous aspects of the physical environment that pose great danger to the health of the people. Some people believe that these health concerns are exaggerations that are unwarranted. Therefore, there is a need to establish whether these concerns warrant attention accorded to them.  This is fundamental in determining where organizations should focus their attentions. Health risk assessment is a scientific procedure designed to help in making these decisions. Organizations rely on risk assessments in establishing potential hazards that are most significant. The law requires employers to set up health surveillance programs and assign competent persons to assist the company with compliance, in terms of health and safety compliance (Kinoulty & Williams, 2005). This is done by conducting an observation and analysis of the company’s data. The factors that are of keen interest are the overall absenteeism rates, absenteeism length, and the diseases reported as the cause of absenteeism. This process also utilizes employee survey through which physical and psychosocial hazards are assessed.
The Principles of Occupational Health Surveillance
Surveillance involves monitoring the health of a person to identify changes in the status of health due to occupational exposure to a hazardous substance or work process (Leka & Houdmont, 2010). Health surveillance is a generic term that covers procedures and investigations conducted to assess the health of the worker with the aim to detect and identify abnormality (Hagberg et al., 2012). The findings of the surveillance should be utilized to protect and promote the health of the individual worker, collective health at the workplace environment, and the health of the working population that is exposed.  In terms of worker’s health surveillance, the procedures include medical examinations, radiological examinations, review of health records, questionnaire administration, biological monitoring, as well as other useful procedures (Deeney & O’Sullivan, 2009). Work-related musculoskeletal injury is one of the significant factors that hamper productivity in the work environments. The process of occupational health surveillance begins with needs assessment (Leka & Houdmont, 2010). Questionnaires such as the Parsimonious Questionnaires provide a useful tool for epidemiological studies in the workplaces (Magnavita, Garbatino, & Sergist, 2012). In particular, Parsimonious Assessment is vital in routine medical surveillance.
Aims of Health Surveillance
Health surveillance has the following aims (WHO, 1986)
1.To identify the workers at increased risk. Health surveillance identifies workers who have a high risk of developing an occupational disease. For instance, exposure to potent respiratory irritants such as chlorine has a severe impact on asthmatic workers.
2.To assess compliance with standards and regulations. Government laws and codes of practice mandate manufacturing industries to conduct health surveillance in the workplace. The government laws include a schedule of potentially hazardous substances and materials for which surveillance is mandatory, including the type of health surveillance required. Lead and isocyanates in paints are some of the substances that require surveillance.
3.To ensure early detection. The principal purpose of the procedures for health surveillance is to provide a mechanism for early detection of adverse effects to health, in order to protect the worker from further injury through control of the process or removal of the worker from exposure.
4.Epidemiology and disease. Health surveillance evaluates the health experiences of workers exposed to certain hazardous agents or workers conducting their work within a specific industry. An excellent example is the Health Watch Program, in the Australian petroleum industry, which monitors the incidence of cancer among workers in the industry. Healthwise is another example of a health surveillance program that occupational exposures, respiratory symptoms, and cancer incidence, in the aluminium industry.
5.To evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. Health surveillance provides fundamental information on the effectiveness safe working practices.
Environmental Considerations in the Manufacturing Industry
Workers in the manufacturing environment are exposed to chemicals and factory operations that pose serious hazards to the health of workers (Hughes & Ferrett, 2010).  Biological monitoring, clinical testing, administration of questionnaires are required to conduct an assessment and uncover the level of exposure of the manufacturing industry workers to hazardous chemicals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, asbestos, and other chemicals of public health significance that are highly concentrated in the manufacturing environments (Rajgopal, Ravimohan, & Mascarenhas, 2006). These are chemicals that affect the employees’ lungs, oral cavity, eyes, skin, kidneys, and other body systems including the central nervous systems.  Health impact assessment is essential in determining the effect that these chemicals and processes have on the workers’ health.
Manufacturing organizations must be concerned with aspects of the environment. There is a need to ensure interaction between health and safety policy and the environmental policy which is being developed by several organizations currently. Ecological and disposal considerations are essential elements included in the data sheet for health surveillance. Air pollution, water pollution, and waste disposal are the environmental issues related to the health and safety function of an organization. Air and water pollutants and, factory wastes are toxic, corrosive, carcinogenic, and irritant to the health systems of industrial workers. They are the primary sources of health problems among industrial workers.
Best-Practices for the Management of Manufacturing Firms
In order to reduce air and water pollution, government environmental agencies have made certain recommendations for factory managers (Leka & Houdmont, 2010). 
1.Prevention. Manufacturing firms should change the processes so that wastes are not produced. This may imply replacing particular materials.
2.Reduction. This can be achieved through improvement of process efficiency. For instance, better machine maintenance can serve this purpose.
3.Re-use. This involves recycling the waste products back into the process. Using reground plastic materials is an example of the way in which re-use of industry waste products can occur.
4.Recovery. This may utilize processes such as composting, recycling, or combustion of industrial waste. For example, combustion of flammable waste for heating a building.
5.Responsible disposal. This implies disposing waste products in accordance with regulatory provisions. 
Costs Associated with Health Surveillance
•Medical fees
•Travelling expenses
•Pathology tests
•Time away from work
Integrating OHS into the Organizational Management
Occupational health and safety risk management can be undermined if it is treated as a function separate from the mainstream management and accorded less priority than functions such as productivity and quality management (Grammeno, 2009). Successful prevention of illness and injury is highly likely if occupational health and safety programs are integrated into mainstream management system. In order to realize the desirable benefits of environmental risk management fully, the principles should be reflected in the central system of organizational management. This can be easily realized if the occupational health and safety management systems and activities are consolidated under one manager, rather than being spread across departments. 
The tools and techniques for Risk Management can be used to
•Identify the potential causes of risks, weaknesses, and threats in the business
•Assess the relative significance of the risks, and
•Take proactive steps of action to eliminate these risks.
In developing an integrated occupational health and safety, productivity and quality system, there are three principal elements
•Setting standards
•Ensuring compliance with standards, and
•Raising standards
The main areas that require standards are productivity, incoming product quality, finished product quality, safety, housekeeping, and equipment reliability.
The Process of Health Risk Assessment
OHS risk assessment is conducted with a goal to provide relevant and most objective scientific information, in relation to the risks of a specific environment (Hagberg et al., 2012). In order to achieve this aim, the process of risk assessment follows four principal steps.
1.Issue identification 
This involves identification of issue relating to a project for which risk assessment is necessary (Leka & Houdmont, 2010). It comprises phases including identification of environmental health issues, clarification and prioritizing of hazards and problems, identification of possible interactions between agents and, determination of the significance of risk assessment and the scope of objectives of the risk assessment process.
2.Hazard assessment 
Hazard assessment involves identification of hazards and dose-response assessment for specific hazards. In relation to hazard identification, the consideration involves identifying health hazards and analyzing the potential adverse health effects of hazardous materials, substances, and work processes. Dose response assessment consists of the evaluation of the relationship between an adverse effect and dose of a particular hazard in humans. 
3.Exposure assessment 
This step involves the analysis of the exposures that are likely to be experienced under the anticipated environmental conditions.
4.Risk characterization 
This is the final step which analyzes the information that has been considered in the previous steps to describe the risks to various population groups based on the incidence of adverse health effects. This is where conclusions are made, in the form of health risk assessment reports that give the overall picture of the risks.
Usefulness of Health Risk Assessment
Risk managers depend on risk assessment reports when making regulatory decisions (Hagberg et al., 2012). For instance, it is vital in setting drinking water standards or creating plans for cleaning up hazardous waste sites.  In addition to the responsibility for protecting of human health, risk managers must also consider public perception, as well as political, socio-economic, and technological factors.  For example, risk managers need to consider the effect that the loss of jobs would affect the community, in case of factory closure due to failure to meet regulatory requirements or the cost of removing a contaminant from drinking water.
Health risk assessment assists managers in weighing the costs and benefits of various alternatives aimed at reducing exposure to a health hazard, such as a chemical (Leka & Houdmont, 2010). For instance, health risk assessment determines the health benefit of placing a clay chip over the waste vis-à-vis the costly alternative of eliminating the waste from the site. It may be impossible to eliminate a health hazard completely. Therefore, health risk assessment helps managers put in measures that reduce health risks related to exposure to a negligible low.  Balancing the need to reduce risks with the cost of the product is essential. For instance, regulatory agencies must establish health and safety standards for products while making sure that the consequent product price remains affordable to the consumer. 
Health risk assessments are designed as a working tool for risk management. They can contribute to decisions that are made in risk management including prioritization of issues and actions based on risk, setting of specific health-based criteria for projects, and developing plans aimed at reducing certain risks. Health risk assessment should be perceived as a process that serves all stakeholders. Therefore, it must provide an acceptable objective assessment based on independent viewpoints in addressing situations that involve conflicting stakeholder viewpoints. Decisions based on objective risk assessments will be held in high confidence by all stakeholders, which will contribute to a more effective management of the project.
Lead and Lag Indicators
Outcome indicators, otherwise known as lagging indicators, have been used in the manufacturing industry to track when injury, harm or damage has occurred (Hagberg et al., 2012). Leading indicators or activities are used to measure the causes or precursors to injury or harm, and provide warning of the potential occurrence of an event with undesirable outcome. Activities indicators provide industrial organizations the opportunity to prepare preventive actions to be taken. The value of leading indicators is in the fact that it provides lead information that guides the manufacturing company prevent damage or loss. In order to be effective, leading indicators should be interacted with the central organizational aims, decision making processes, and strategy so as to deliver on desired performance. The nearer an organization gets to a point of “zero harm” as determined using the lagging indicators, the more difficult it becomes to ensure the health and safety by tracking lagging performance. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish factors that are associated with improved performance. Therefore, management efforts should focus on frequently measurable indicators.
Leading Indicators: Causal Pathways
Occupational health and safety outcomes can result from the accumulation of several causes (Leka & Houdmont, 2010). In order for a leading indicator to contribute to improved occupational health and safety performance, there must be a causal association that is demonstrable between occupational health and safety performance and the leading indicator. Activity indicators give a lead to the causes of occupational health and safety outcomes. Precursors or causes of undesirable occupational health and safety lie in the areas associated to:
•People (including factors such as behavior, degree of ownership, and leadership)
•Organizations (Including culture)
•Systems (all business areas)
•Processes (administrative and technical)
•Physical plant and processing (technological and technical)
Leading Indicators (Activities) and Management Systems
If leading OHS surveillance systems use leading indicators, they must be positioned within the context of formal, overall management system (Godwin, 2011). A robust and functional management system applies both the lagging and leading indicators. It frames them within the central or overall performance measurement system that measures the overall business success. Organizations in the manufacturing sector should include the indicators of health and safety performance within the general index of organizational performance. 
Plenty has to be done for several organizations within the harm minimization framework, with respect to environmental safety (Grammeno, 2009). However, best practice organizations have embraced a wider set of goals and objectives. Organizational health and safety can contribute to an organization’s objectives. Organizations can benefit from promoting the health and wellbeing of employees. An organizational design that meets the needs of those that work within it will facilitate efficient and effective production. In addition, organizational aims of best practice organizations go beyond the immediate need for cost minimization and profitability. In line with the principals of corporate social responsibility, there is the realization that the value of reputation in the community of customers and the expansion of the socially responsible investment funds makes the occupational health and safety a potential development opportunity or risk rather than an insignificant internal function, in relation to investor confidence and capacity for emergency response. 
Health risk assessment should work in an evolving environment. New science, new developments, and new information will continue to impact on our health. Therefore, risk assessment must cope with these changes so as to provide relevant knowledge on the potential effects of existing and emerging health hazards in occupational environments. These enhancements in our understanding and knowledge can be used to management future situations accurately, in order to contribute to a safer and healthier society, ultimately.
Deeney, C. & O’Sullivan, L. (2009) “Work-related psychological risks and musculoskeletal disorders: potential risk factors, causation, and evaluation methods” Work, 34(2): 239-248
Dingdag, D., Biggs, H. & Cipolla, D. (2008) “Safety effectiveness indicators” Brisbane: Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation
Gailbraith, I. (1998) “Occupational safety and health” Construction Engineering and Management, 121(2): 81-95
Godwin, IR (2011) “Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management Efforts and Performance of Nigerian Construction Contractors” Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 16(2): 151-173
Grammeno, G. (2009) “Planning Occupational Health and Safety” Wolters Kluwer Group
Hagberg, M. et al. (2012) “Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Workers: Classification and Health Surveillance” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 13(2012): 109
Hughes, P. & Ferrett, E. (2010) “Introduction to International Health and Safety at Work” Burlington, MA: Elsevier
Kinoulty, M. & Williams, N. (2005) “Occupational health provision and health surveillance in the semiconductor industry” Occupational Medicine, 56(2): 100-101
Landsbergis, P.A. (2010) “Assessing the Contribution of working conditions to socio-economic disparities in health: a commentary” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53(2): 95-103
 Leka, S. & Houdmont, J. (2010) “Occupational Health Psychology” Malden, MA: Blackwell
Magnavita, N., Garbarino, S., & Siegrist, J. (2012) “The Use of Parsimonious Questionnaires in Occupational Health Surveillance: Psychometric Properties of the Short Italian Version of the Effort/Reward Imbalance Questionnaire” The Scientific World Journal, 2012: 1-7
Moy, KL, Sallis, JF, & David, KJ. (2010) “Health Indicators of Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders” Journal of Community Health, 35(1): 81-92
Rajgopal, T., Mascarenhas, P., & Ravimohan, H.V. (2006) “Epidemiological-surveillance of employees in a mercury-thermometer plant: an occupational health study” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 10(1): 11-18
Smith R, Vorwald, A, Mooney, T., & Patil, S. (1970) “Effects of mercury exposure in the manufacture of chlorine” Annals of Industrial Hygiene, 31: 681-700
WHO (1986) “Early detection of diseases in occupational environments” www.who.int
Workplace Health & Safety Queensland (2010) “Guidelines for Workplace Health Surveillance” Http://www.deir.qld.gov.au
Published in Social Sciences
Thursday, 28 November 2013 20:09

Global Warming

Global Warming

Natural versus Anthropogenic Climate Change

An important factor is how the climate change has occurred, how it affects the world, and strategies that can be developed in order to work on the issue of climate changes. It is with no doubt that the earth is taking some changes that include climate change. Talk of global warming something that has completely affected the earth, making it the subject of discussion among many nations. The current worry is whether we are in the position to distinguish between human factors that contribute to climate change or the natural factors responsible for the current climate change. Based on the several studies conducted on the global warming, results indicate that there has been a natural climate change as well as the anthropogenic climate change.

Natural and human activities all leads to the same thing of climate change. Greenhouse gases, volcanic emissions, and solar activities, as well as human activities are the key factors that are responsible for climate change. They affect the energy balance and radiation of the earth thus creating a condition of global warming. Anthropogenic and natural climate change leads to variations in the earth energy balance which develops to changes in patters and distribution of glacier mass, polar sea ice, hydrology, rainfall, and air temperature. Internal modes of climate variability such as the north Atlantic oscillation and ENSO are part of the factors responsible for changes in the current climate conditions. It is clear that humans and natural activities are responsible for the current global warming and climate changes affecting the earth temperature, (Backman, et al., 2011).

Anthropogenic climate changes are as a result of human activities such as land use and carbon emission from activities of global development. This type of climate change has significantly affected earth’s temperature aspects. Evidence shows that the human induced climate changes have changed compared to the past. It is currently happening at a much faster rate compared to the natural cycle variation of sun instigation in global warming. The rate at which temperature changes are very high as compared to the last ice age making it hard for species to adapt to the climate changes. Studies on the aspect of global warming indicate that the earth climate change has made it difficult for both animal and plant species to migrate. The rapid ascent of the global climate change will affect human living aspects that will make humans migrate away from the sea in order to get a place where they can live. Some scientist’s say that the only option man has been to adapt to the current global warming simply because what is there to be done is less as compared to the impacts of climate change, (Wei, He, & Bao, 2011).

Global Warming is Taking Place

It is with no doubt that global warming is taking place through natural and human activities aspects. We should not deny the fact that global warming is present simply because there are potential indicators such as changes in patters and distribution of glacier mass, polar sea ice, hydrology, rainfall, and air temperature. Scientists in the last several decades have been in the study on how climate change patterns have been taking place in the world. Based on the review conducted by IPCC on hundreds of these studies, it is clear that human and natural activities have significantly affected the earth’s climate. Since the late 19th century, climate and temperature in general has changed. It is estimated that the temperature since then has risen to about 1.3 degrees F, greenhouse gases and other dangerous gases have also increased significantly over those years. The increase in precipitation in the Asia parts, the eastern Americans, and northern Europe is a clear indication that global warming is taking place. Another thing is that areas that are known for droughts have become more severe, and longer an indication that the earth’s climate is changing thus global warming has taken place, (Hodgson, et al., 2009).

Mitigation Strategies for Global Warming

Over the past several decades, deforestation and burning of fossil fuels have increased the earth’s climate due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These factors have significantly affected the earth’s surface temperature something that affects the earth’s ecosystem. There are a number of mitigation strategies that deal with the issue of global warming. Some of these mitigation strategies include but not limited to higher fuel efficiency standards, clean coal technology, carbon taxing, and carbon sequestration. Carbon taxation is one of the current mitigation strategies for global warming that most countries are using. Carbon emissions are a great danger to the society simply because it will affect the earth in future, (Backman, et al., 2011). The carbon taxation mitigation strategy uses the concept that those who are emitting gas to pay some tax while those who are not in use of gasoline are not required to pay. The tax is used to take care of the emitted gas by developing strategies on how to clean up the mess. The strategy is effective simply because it captures the emissions and then transfers them to a place that is not dangerous to humans and ecosystem at large. Another mitigation strategy for global warming is the carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration goes together with carbon taxation simply because it is the technology applied to capture emissions from the atmosphere after the carbon is released to the climate. Machinery and equipments are largely used at coal power plants which are effective components of ensuring that carbon is not released directly to the atmosphere, (Berg & Hager, 2007).

Policy Changes

There are a number of policy changes that can be used to help stabilize global climate changes. Emission pricing to stabilize global climate is one of the best policy changes that would help in global warming temperature stabilization. This will affect mostly developing countries and developed countries. Emission pricing system will require this countries pay for the emissions carried in their countries for these are the countries that have the highest level of human activities associated with carbon release aspects. It is clear that we have a problem of climate change that requires quick attention thus these standards will strictly ensure that countries or businesses that engage in activities associated with carbon release pay for the emissions in order to ensure proper measures are taken to capture those emissions, (Kikuchi, 2010).                      


Backman, J. J., Karlen, W. W., Rodhe, H. H., & Kallen, E. E. (2011). Man-made versus natural climate change. AMBIO - A Journal Of The Human Environment, 28(4), 376

Berg, L. R., & Hager, M. C. (2007). Visualizing environmental science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Hodgson, J. A., Thomas, C. D., Wintle, B. A., & Moilanen, A. (2009). Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics. Journal Of Applied Ecology, 46(5), 964-969. doi:10.1111/j.1365

Kikuchi, R. (2010). Refereed Papers: External Forces Acting on the Earth's Climate: An Approach to Understanding the Complexity of Climate Change. Energy & Environment, 21(8), 953-968

Wei, J., He, X., & Bao, Y. (2011). Anthropogenic impacts on suspended sediment load in the Upper Yangtze river. Regional Environmental Change, 11(4), 857-868. doi:10.1007/s10113-011-0222-0

Published in History
Thursday, 28 November 2013 19:55

Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment and selection


Good recruitment and selection strategies usually result to improved outcomes of the organization. Human resource should be able to identify the organization human resource. When the need has been identified, the process of recruitment starts. Recruitment is referred to as the discovery of potential candidates for anticipated or actual vacancies in the organization. It can also be said to be the process of linking activity through bring together people with jobs to fill and also the people who are looking for jobs. An ideal effort of recruitment is going to attract a large number of applicants who are qualified who are going to take the job if offered. The recruitment effort should also provide information so that applicants who are not qualified can self select themselves out of the candidacy of the job (Mathis, & John, 2010). A characteristic of a good recruitment program is that it should attract the qualified and not attract those who are not qualified. This paper is prepared so that to put a light on the process of recruitment and selection.


It is defined as the way of attracting prospective employees and stimulates them to apply a job in a company. It is said to be the process of hiring the right people on the right job. This is a process of attracting, selecting, screening, and on boarding qualified people for a job. Recruitment can also involve the brand development of the employer that will include an employee offering. The recruitment and selection process of workers for an organization is a crucial and a critical aspect in running an organization (Stone, 2008). This is because the decision that a person makes can either take the organization to success, or a wrong decision can completely destroy the organization.

           Recruitment can be done in various methods, but it has been put into two broad headings which include internal recruitment and external recruitment.

Internal recruitment

Internal recruitment is defined as the method of recruitment that takes place within the organization. The sources of internal recruitment are usually readily available in the organization. These sources are three through transfers, promotions, and re employment of ex employees. In re employment of ex employees, it is recruitment where employees can be invited and be appointed to fill in a vacancy of concern (Mathis, & John, 2010). Internal recruitment can result to a rise in the productivity of the workers because their motivational level increases. It is also a method that helps the organization in saving money, time, and efforts. Internal recruiting usually provide the existing employees with a greater opportunity of advancing their careers in the organization, helps in maintaining the employee who might leave, and the employer is aware of the internal abilities of the candidate.

However, internal recruitment has drawbacks in which it tends to refrains the organization from new blood. It is also not possible to get all the manpower through internal recruitment and the organization will be required to hire from outside (Stone, 2008). Internal recruitment also limits the number of potential applicants of a job it tends to create another vacancy that will require to be filled, and business might become resistant to change. It also builds the idea of the existing employees that they have an automatic right of being promoted.

External recruitment

External recruitment is the process of recruitment for identifying and attracting job aspirant from outside the organization. External recruitment is where the organization tries to sell itself out to the potential applicants; therefore, there are many principles from marketing which are applied to improve the recruitment yields (Gusdorf, 2008). When the human resource department is searching for the pool of employees outside the organization, the organization might use job search websites, advertisements in the newspapers, referrals from current employees so that to fill the positions. A job advertisement is most likely to be used in external recruitment, which is used for informing the potential applicants about the opportunity, help in dissuading the unsuitable applicants, obtaining a large number of suitable qualified applicants, and to provide enough information, so that to inform and interest the possible candidates.

There are four most popular ways of recruiting. The first method is through job centres where the government agencies help unemployed people to get jobs or be trained. The second method is through job advertisement where the organization choice of advertising depends on the cost of advertising and the coverage that is required (Gusdorf, 2008). Personal recommendation is the third way of external recruiting, which is also referred to as word of mouth. This can be recommended from an employee at work. In this method, full assessment is required, but it helps in saving the cost of advertising. The fourth method is recruitment agency which provides employers with details about a suitable candidate for a vacant position. The agency usually works for a fee, and they specialize in a certain area of employment.

There are several advantages of external recruitment. In this method, the organization gets an inflow of completely new idea with the employee who was not exposed to the corporate culture of the organization. It creates a large pool of workers making it possible to obtain the best candidate, and also people have a wide range of experience. However, external recruitment has its drawbacks, which are the method, is time consuming, it reduces the loyalty to the organization, and it is also costly because it is a method that involves selection, training coast, and recruitment cost (Gusdorf, 2008). It is also possible that the selection method not to be effective enough to disclose the best candidates.

Importance of recruitment

The human talent is considered as one of the most sought after commodity. Recruitment tends to play an essential role in the organization success as it act as a filter when it is used properly in selecting the best candidate (Stone, 2008). The benefits and importance of the recruitment process include

  1. Help in creating a pool of talent for the potential candidates for organization benefit
  2. It encourages  more candidates to apply in the organization
  3. Helps in increasing the success rate of the process of selection through decreasing the number of unqualified or over qualified applicants.
  4. It helps to identify and prepare potential job applicants who are going to be appropriate candidates for the job.
  5. Recruitment also helps in reducing the probability that the individuals who will be recruited and selected will leave the company after a short time.
  6. It also helps in increasing the effectiveness of the organization and individual in various recruiting techniques and all types of job applicants.

Job analysis

Job analysis is the series techniques that are designed for providing information about the details of the job. It is the process of gathering, examining, and setting information concerning the content of the jobs so that to provide the job description and the date of recruitment, job evaluation, training, and performance management. The role of job analysis emphasizes on the significance of the activity to the firm. Job analysis is also used in developing and identifying interview questions, selecting tests, applicant appraisal, and job simulation. When the organization is conducting job analysis exercise, the organization need to remember that there are downsides of the stability of the process over time and its accuracy (Stone, 2008). Therefore, there is a need for regular update. The idea that job analysis focal point relate with the specific work tasks there is a high chance of separating employees from their task context and presuming that there exists a right manner of performing each job.

Job description

Job description is the summary of the reporting relationship, requirement, and responsibilities of the position. It is usually used in identifying the specific function of a certain job and includes the fundamentals of the duties that the candidate is expected to perform and also accomplish. Job description is usually essential in determining specific requirements that an applicant is supposed to meet, and it is to be used in the selection of employee. Recognizing the requirements and responsibilities of the job description is a good indicator of the skills necessary in performing a specific job function. It is also necessary for recruiters to look out for candidates who best fit the job and also the culture of the organization (Stone, 2008). In determining whether a candidate is best fit for the job, it is necessary to identify the past performance and accomplishments of the candidate of the relevant, none job specific tasks to help in determining the tangible skills and abilities of the individual. When finding the right fit, it refers to the skills and experience of the candidate is relevant to the job

Selection process

Recruitment usually come before the selection process which is referred to as the final stage of getting recruits and is defined as predicting the candidates who will make the most appropriate contribution to the company now and in the future. The selection process is usually used by organizations when deciding on recruiting applicants and also deciding on who is to be promoted, dismissed, transferred, or redundant. During the selection process, the appropriate candidates will be selected for the position (Stone, 2008). When making the decision on the candidate who will make a suitable contribution to the organization is critical because failure is usually costly and might result to negative influence on the performance and development of the organization. In order for the threats to be avoided, the employees are supposed to conduct the selection process in an impartial and objective way through focusing in the effective and appropriate selection techniques.

The people doing the selection are more likely to predict the future performance. They are also responsible of explaining all the important job characteristics so that to avoid applicants disappointment and leaving after a short period. The objective of the selection process is to gather, organize, and evaluate all the relevant information and assess each of the candidates so that to predict the applicant’s job performance and provide the necessary information to the applicants (Stone, 2008). This information will assist the judgment of the future employee on whether to accept or decline the job offer. The organization should obtain and create an objective and methodological system when they are selection candidates so that to avoid acceptance and rejection in uninformed and subjective manner.

Importance of the selection process

Selecting the right people for the organization is important because of three reasons, which are cost, performance, and legal obligations. The performance of the organization depends on the subordinates. The employees who have the right skills usually do a better job for the organization and also the owner. These are employee who will increase the performance of the organization to a great extent. Therefore, screening out undesired people and selecting the perfect and better candidates effectively contribute to organization success (Nankervis, et al 2009). Recruiting and hiring employees is usually costly. Therefore, cost benefit ratio should be considered in hiring employee so that to avoid unnecessary wastage of valuable resources and money.

The third importance of the selection process is because of the legal implications of incompetent hiring. It is a requirement by the equal employment law to have nondiscriminatory selection procedures for the groups selected. It is also a legal obligation because the courts will find the organization liable when the employees who have criminal records use the access of the homes of customers in committing crimes. Therefore, selection is important because it helps in avoiding companies from hiring candidates with criminal backgrounds. When a company hires a candidate with such a background, it is referred to as neglect hiring.


According to Arthur, (2001), he says that the most common approaches for selection are through interviews, which are followed by CVs and application forms. A wide range also includes psychological testing, in tray exercise, references, and assessment centers. The application forms, which are usually provided by the employees, normally allow the candidates to present essential, information in a certain format and give an insight into the organization. These forms are useful in screening and identifying the appropriate applicants for a further process. The application forms, which are available online, help in reducing the cost of the selection process. An application form that is properly filled with a good designed CV tends to make a good impression on the employee.

Interviews are the most used selection technique. The interviews may involve a panel of interviewers, and they may be unstructured or structured. Structured, standardized, and incorporate situational interviews are likely of predicting the future of the job performance. Interviews are usually inexpensive although together with other methods of selection, they may require a lot of training and preparation so that to avoid disappointing the reliability and validity results. The purpose of interviews is to assess the knowledge, skills, experience, requirements, training, and aspirations of the interviewee (Nankervis, et al 2009). The interview approach is sometimes too broad, and the quality and information that is obtained may be weakened by the limitation of the interview time. Interviews are usually heavily criticized as the skills and abilities of the interviewer’s nervousness, failure of remembering important answers, and domination of the process might be displayed during the process. This might results to making too quick decisions that are based on irrelevant information.

The key advantage of interviews is the exchange of thoughts, communication, feelings, and judgment on both sides. According to Arthur, (2001), he says that the probable sources of error that may manipulate the valuation of applicants by interviewers are the first impression, contrast, harshness and leniency, hallo and horns, expectancy, stereotyping, and negative information. In order for the interview to be effective, the interviewers need to be aware of the effects that the influences have.

The influence of recruitment and selection process

A decision that is poor and mistaken about employment of the new appointees may badly influence the organization. Issues regarding the relations with the customers, suppliers, quality, and production of services might be destructed by a trainer who is not familiar with the ethos and goals of the organization. New employees in the organization can influence the commitment and morale of associates unfavorably, and they can also counteract to presumptuous team working. A poor selection decision can affect the subsequent attainment of the managers negatively if their actions are measured on the basis of the employees (Nankervis, et al 2009).

Employee redundancy may be costly even if a decision of urgent dismissal is made, the appointment money has been sustained, and additional expenditure may be linked to the required time for another appointment. It is possible for organizations to face long term repercussions in a case where poor recruitment and selection choice cannot be remedied by the contract of the employee. A recruitment and selection process that is not effective can assign a member of staff to a wrong post. When an individual puts effort to be successful in a mistaken job role, it is likely to affect, decrease of even loss self esteem. It is likely for such a person to hold themselves responsible, and they presume that the skills they have is not relevant or they overrated their capabilities.

Mistakes in recruitment and selection process are usually perceived as an expression of the level of an individual capability. An existence of such a belief can loosen morale and self assurance. This is likely to result to a further deterioration of performance level that will influence the future difficulties when finding a new job (Arthur, 2006). It is also likely for individuals to be conscious of imperfection in the process of recruitment and selection and benefit from it. A recruitment process that is poor and inefficient can leave an applicant with unfavorable perception about the organization and it is likely for the person to share their opinions with other people.


The victory of an organization typically depends on the performance and abilities of the employees. It is to the most top importance of the organization to make certain that it recruits the best candidates for a certain position. For the organization to be able to achieve the goal, it should implement effective methods and processes of recruitment and selection that suit the requirement of the organization. Failure to using the right method of recruitment and selection may cost the reputation of the organization, money, waste of time, and word of mouth. Recruitment and selection are a human resource management centre area, and they are also the fundamentals of a successful functioning of a business. Through implementation of effective processes, it might increase the profitability of the organization, working relationships, morale, and advance performance. Although the process might be time consuming or expensive, the long term benefit tends to outweigh the expenditure incurred when employing unsuitable applicant who are not capable of doing well.


Arthur, D. (2001). The Employee Recruiting and Retention Handbook New York: Amacom

Arthur, D. (2006). Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting & Orienting New Employees. New York: Amacom

Stone, R (2008). Human resource management Australia: John Wiley and Sons

Mathis, R & John, J (2010). Human resource management Ohio: Cengage Learning

Gusdorf, M (2008). Recruiting and selecting Society for human Resource Management

Compton, R Morrissey, W & Nankervis, A (2009). Effective recruitment and selection practices CCH Australia Limited

Published in Management
Thursday, 28 November 2013 19:48

Death Penalty

Death Penalty


The issue of the death penalty is something which most of the people fail to have a clear decision on. There are many people who usually support the issue of the death penalty while others fail to support it. However, there are other people who tend to support it, but only in certain cases. According to my opinion, I would support administering the death penalty on certain cruel crimes like serial murder. People who fail to support the death penalty as a form of punishment tend to consider it as cruel and unusual, but they fail to understand the pain of the loss of the people they loved has caused to friends and family of the victim.


In writing my essay, I have chosen to support the death penalty on certain crimes that are committed such as serial murder.


Many of the people who usually support the idea of the death penalty claim that it is deterrent for criminals in the future who are planning to commit murders or other serious crimes. However, I tend not to agree with this idea because most of the time when the criminals are committing crimes, they fail to think the consequences of their actions. I believe that the best punishment for a criminal who has committed murder should be death penalty. However, this cannot be considered as a logical reason of reducing crimes because there is no credible evidence that it lowers crime. This is because according to research, those states that practice the death penalty tend not to lower rates of crime as compared to the states that practice life imprisonment as being the highest form of punishment (Hoyle, & Hood, 2008). Crimes usually interfere with the order and peace of the society and with the appropriate punishment that is equitable and just helps in restoring order and peace.

People who usually oppose the idea of the death penalty tend to say that capital punishment usually condemn the innocent to die. The Bill of Rights in United States says that there is no person who should answer for the capital crime unless on a presentment of an indictment to the grand jury. The process of executing criminals is usually long and by the time all the petitions are completed; it is likely got the attorneys to have found out new evidence, which will support the innocence of the criminal from examining the cases many times. At some instances such as using the death penalty for serial killers, it usually help in reducing the chance of the murderer to kill other people, it shows that justice is better served, and also saves the lives of many other people (Hoyle, & Hood, 2008). Eliminating serial killers from the society is the best strategy for ensuring the safety of the public. Therefore, I would favor punishment of this individual through death as it helps in preventing the crime from happening again.

 Also support the idea of the death penalty for crimes such as serial murderer because it shows that justice is best served. According to the fundamental principle of justice, it requires that punishment should be able to fit the crime (Philips 2000). Therefore, I believe that when someone commits murder to another person, it makes sense for the punishment of the perpetrator to be death. Therefore, there is a need to put emphasizes of justice to protecting the people who have been victimized rather than protecting those who have been accused. Through death penalty, it helps in saving lives because the chance of repeated murder is eliminated and also murders that would have happened in the future are also prevented (Hoyle, & Hood, 2008). In my view, death penalty to a person who has committed a cruel crime like murder is necessary because it gives closure to the victims’ families who have been suffering a lot. This is an act that brings the end to horrible acts in the lives of the family members.

In my community, for the past one year, there had been many instances of death occurring at night where there were people who murdered women after having raped them. This is an incident that caused a lot of fear to the entire community as people would not stay in peace knowing that there is a murderer in society who has not yet been caught. Five women were killed in 6 months, but at year end the men who were committing the cruel act were caught and punished with the death penalty. This incidence brought calm and order and the family members of the victims who had been killed felt that justice had been served as they knew the people who had taken the lives of their loved ones were punished. In this case, if the death penalty was not used as punishment, it would be more likely for other people to continue with the crime because they would think that the criminals were only being contained in the prisons. However, through executing them, it caused fear and no individual would want to commit such a crime because, since the execution of the murderers, such an incidence has never happened.

I favor the idea of capital punishment because it deters murders and it also offers the only punishment that is just for crimes that are without parallel. It is likely for instances of murder to increase if the criminals think that it is possible for them easily get out in light sentence when they have committed horrible crimes. I support punishment of murder through death penalty because it is the best solution to serial murders and saving lives of many. Death penalty helps in discouraging crimes when it directly confronts the people. The more death penalty is used, the more the incidences of murder are decreased. According to Philips (2000), he says that the decrease in the incidence of murders usually occur because the death penalty has a short term deterrent on the effects of murder. Practicing death penalty helps in reducing incidences of murder because when people are confronted with the realities of punishment as it is opposed to thinking about it, they are likely to understand and internalize the message.


I believe that punishment through death penalty is moral and just to crimes that are cruel such as murder. Therefore, it is necessary to remember that no person should be executed if they do not murder. People who have committed acts of murder should never be considered as innocent people because they have caused pain to the family members and have also brought a person’s life to an end. Therefore, in order to save the entire community from such an act, it is necessary to eliminate these kinds of people from the society.


Philips (2000). The deterrent effects of capital punishment American journal of sociology 86 (1)

Hoyle, C & Hood, R (2008). The death penalty Oxford University Press

Published in Sociology
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