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Sociology

Sociology (201)

Friday, 30 May 2014 15:39

Journal Entry 2

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Journal Entry 2


As nursing leaders, I expect to make significant changes in healthcare at a local, national and global level. First I will be an advocate for quality patient care. As a family nurse practitioner, I will instill in my colleagues the need to provide patient with quality care. I will also encourage teamwork in an effort to render quality services. The spirit of teamwork will enable healthcare professionals to work together and ensure that patients are properly diagnosed, treated and taken care of till recovery. I also intend to be a visionary leader i.e. a leader who outlines the future and establishes effective strategies that can be implemented to reach the set future. I will also be flexible and open to changes aimed at improving healthcare delivery (Guo, 2000).


Change is an inevitable process that affects all organs of a society. The healthcare sector is also affected by change, which in most cases if implemented yields positive results. As a nursing leader, I will be at the forefront to encourage my colleagues and juniors to embrace positive changes that will boost service delivery. In most instance changes are preferable rather than maintaining the status quo. Healthcare leaders who are inflexible with a tendency to maintain the status quo are often left behind with regard to efficiency and quality healthcare services.   I intend to become a nursing leader who advocates for change especially when the adoption of these changes will open up opportunities for the healthcare facility.


I also intend  be at the forefront in effective planning and implementation of advance practice nursing roles with the intention of minimizing current and future healthcare challenges.Nursing education will expose me to theoretical and practical training in preparation to becoming a family nurse practitioner. Nursing education will guarantee that I am competent and with adequate nursing knowledge to execute my task and duties. Nursing education will also expose me to existing health policies that I as a healthcare professional should adhere to during my nursing practice. Similarly, Nursing education will expose me to the world of research which is suitable for information searching.


Nursing education exposes nursing students to currently activities such as evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP is vital as it enables nurses make critical nursing decisions based on credible scientific research and findings.  As a family nurse practitioner, nursing education will provide me with additional nursing knowledge that will enable me to provide individuals, families, groups and communities with relevant health services. Nursing education will expose me to relevant skills and competencies for handling different groups and categories of patients (NONPF, 2011).


The care to different categories will be based on factors such as health promotion, diseases and injury prevention, rehabilitation and support. Each category of patients will be treated based in his or her immediate needs and the best strategy that can be adopted. Since my specialty will be endoscopy, nursing education ill guarantee that I can provide quality care. Similarly, nursing education will enable me to focus on the patient as a whole and not simply curing the diseases that the patient presents.


 Reference

Guo, K. (2000). The entrepreneurial manager in healthcare organizations. The business review. Vol. 15(2):11

The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. (2011). Nurse practitioner core competencies. Retrieved from http://www.goshen.edu/nursing/files/2011/09/NONPF-core-competencies.pdf


 

Friday, 30 May 2014 14:37

Haier Group

Written by

 Haier Group


 Haier Group is a home appliance and consumer electronic manufacturing company (Haeir Group, 2013). The company has it’s headquarter in China and distributed its product in different countries of the world. The company has the largest market share in the world’s domestic appliance market.


 Haier’s Resources

One of the key resources that the Haier Group possesses is finances. The home appliance manufacturer has recorded good financial performance in the past years. In 2012, the group earned revenues of over US $25.8 billion and profits of over US $ 1.42 billion (Haeir Group, 2013). Financial resources are essential to the growth of a company. They enable a company to finance growth projects without depending on expensive sources of capital. Availability of financial resources also enables an organization to finance activities such as marketing, research and development.


Another key resource for the Haier Group is a wide variety of products. The group manufactures and distributes a wide range of home appliances including refrigerators, freezers, television sets, air conditioners, dishwashers, washing machines, and small appliances (Haeir Group, 2013). The company also manufactures and distributes commercial air conditioners and medical equipment. The wide variety of products enables the group to reach a wide market thus generating more revenue and reducing the risk of depending on one product. It also enables the company the ability to satisfy multiple needs of the customer under one roof.


 Haier’s Capabilities

Innovation is one Haier’s capabilities. Haier provides innovative solutions to the home appliances needs of customers. The group has five research and development centers around the world. The group has also established partnership with research institutions, universities, and suppliers with the aim of creating an innovative ecosystem. The company has established a network of over 1.2 million scientists and engineers to drive its innovation (Haeir Group, 2013). In 2012, Haier Group had over 13,952 patent applications. The group also appeared in the Boston Consulting Group’s list of “World’s 50 Most Innovative Companies”, in 2012.Customer service is also a significant capability for the Haier Group.


The company’s commercial ecosystem is founded on an interactive and delivery platform that seeks to enhance customer satisfaction. The company provides delivery and installation services to users by leveraging its service, logistic and marketing networks (Haeir Group, 2013). Providing quality services to customers is a vital capability as it enables the company to create customer loyalty.Another capability that is visible in Haier Group is effective management.


Haier group has developed an innovative win-win models that seek to align customers goals with employees goals (Haeir Group, 2013). The management structure allows employees to generate value for users. Haier Group inverted pyramid and flat organizational structure has led to empowerment of employees and creation of a dynamic workforce. Haier’s management model has attracted attention from famous business schools and its case has been included in collections of business schools for purposes of teaching and research.


 Distinctiveness of Haier’s Capabilities

The ability to mobilize financial resource is not a distinctive capability. Many companies, within the same industry, have also recorded good financial performance and, therefore, are capable of raising finances (Bryson, Ackermann & Eden, 2007). In addition, even companies that have experienced poor financial performance can raise finances through other avenues such a loans. The ability to deliver a variety of products is also not distinct.  There are numerous other manufacturers that produce a wide range of home appliances.Innovation is a distinctive capability because it is difficult for other companies to replicate what Haier Group is doing.


The company has established partnerships and a complex network of researchers and engineers in order to drive its innovation needs. It is difficult for another organization to replicate this strategy (Bryson, Ackermann, & Eden, 2007).  In addition, innovation is not just about research and development. It is a culture that is developed through the interaction of multiple organizational factors such as leadership, employee empowerment, learning and availability of resources. This makes it difficult for other companies to achieve a similar kind of innovation.  


Effective customer service is also a distinctive capability. Haier’s has managed to create an effective customer service system by developing effective marketing, delivery and installation systems. It is difficult for another company to recreate such a system. Similarly, customer service is also a culture. It is created through the interaction of multiple organizational factors (Bryson, Ackermann & Eden, 2007). Since other organizations cannot replicate all factors that exist in Haier, they cannot recreate the same customer service approach. Effective management is also a distinctive capability as it founded on unique aspects of the organization. This makes it difficult for competing firms to replicate this capability.


 What it takes to make Capabilities Distinct

Capabilities are made distinct by linking them to unique aspects within the organization (Bryson, Ackermann & Eden, 2007). Distinct capabilities are capabilities that cannot be replicated easily by competitors. They give an organization a competitive advantage. Linking capabilities to unique organizational aspects make it difficult for other organization to replicate these capabilities. One of the unique aspects of an organization is the organizational culture (Bryson, Ackermann & Eden, 2007). Organizational culture refers to a set of values, traditions and beliefs that influence the behavior of an organization.


It represents the normal way of doing things within an organization. Organizational culture is generated through interaction of multiple organizational factors such as organizational values, organizational policies, leadership, skills and motivation of employees, the organizational structure, organizational history and many other factors. Each organization has a unique culture that differentiates it from other organization. Entrenching capabilities into the culture of an organization makes it extremely difficult for other companies to replicate these capabilities.


This is because it is impossible for other organization to recreate the culture of Haier.Distinctiveness can also be created by linking capabilities in order to create a unique pattern (Bryson, Ackermann & Eden, 2007). A capability may not be unique. For instance, the ability to provide a variety of products is not a distinctive capability. However, Haier can achieve distinctiveness by linking this capability with other capabilities such as availability of finances, innovation, effective management, customer service. While the ability to provide a variety of products is not distinct, providing a variety of innovative products through effective customer management system may create distinctiveness. Similarly, while the ability to mobilize financial resources is not unique, this capability used to reinforce other capabilities such as innovation, customer service, and management leading to the development of unique pattern.


 Haier Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths are factors within an organization that present advantages to the organization (Thompson, 20120. Haier has several areas of strength including strong financial base, a large scale of operation, a wide range of products, innovation, effective customer services, and effective management. Weaknesses refer to factors within an organization that present disadvantages to the organization. Haeir weaknesses include a large scale of operation and lack of specialization.Haier has a large scale of operation as the firm distributes its product globally. This characteristic of the organization can be considered as strength as it enables the company to reach a wide market (Thompson, 2012). It also enables the company to minimize the impact of geographic specific risks.


A large scale of operation also gives the company advantages of the economy of scale. However, a large scale of operation can also be considered as weakness as it presents several disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is reduced flexibility. The process of making and implementing decision is slow in such a large organization making it least responsive to changes in the external factors.Delivering a wide range of products is also an area of strength as it enables the group to have multiple revenue streams thus increasing revenues and reducing risks. It also enables the organization to enhance customer experiences by meeting multiple needs (Thompson, 2012).


This characteristic can also be a source of weakness as it leads to lack of specialization. Companies that do not specialize limit their capacity to develop distinctiveness because they divide their attention and resource over so many products and processes. Focusing on a few areas and product enables an organization to concentrate its skills and resources thus delivering additional value to customers.Haier can prevent its strengths from becoming weakness by aligning the strength with opportunities (Thompson, 2012).


Opportunities are factors outside the organization that present advantages to the organization. Haier can use its strengths to take advantage of opportunities thus creating benefits for the company. Haier can also prevent its strengths from becoming weaknesses by using these strengths to overcome threats. Threats are factors outside the organization that present disadvantage to the organization. Haier can avoid losses by using its strength to overcome threats. For instance, the group can use it large scale operation to overcome threats of political and economic instability in some of its geographical markets.     


 Approach to Internal Analysis

Zhang should use the resource based view model to analyze its internal analysis ((Bryson, Ackermann & Eden, 2007). The resource based view model analyzes the internal environment by examining the organization tangible resources, intangible resources, and core competencies or capabilities. Zhang goals for the company are to deliver value and options to customers, increase market share, increase shareholder’s return, and create the best working environment for employees. The companies need to establish strategies and tactics that will exploit its resources and capabilities in order to realize these goals.  


 References

Bryson J. Ackermann F. & Eden C. (2007). Implementing the Resource Based View Strategy. Public Administration Review.

Haeir Group (2013). About Haeir. November 7, 2013. http://www.haier.com/ae/header/201110/t20111027_111715.shtml

Thompson S. (2010). Building Competitive Advantage. November 7, 2013. http://www.swlearning.com/pdfs/chapter/0324226217_1.PDF


 

Influence of Culture on Substance Abuse among Adolescents


Culture refers to a set of values, traditions and belief that influences the behavior of individual (Saldana, 2010). Culture has significant implication on drug abuse cases among adolescents. While some cultural values act as protective factors against drug abuse others act as risk factors for this behavior. Culture also has an impact on how an individual perceive heath and healthcare. Thus, drug abuse specialist need to develop cultural competency in order to design effective approaches of treating and preventing drug abuse disorders among teenagers.


 Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Cultural Competency

Cultural competency refers to policies, behaviors and attitudes that interact in a system or among professional in order to enable them to work effectively in cross-cultural environments (Saldana, 2010). Cultural competency plays a critical role in bridging the gap between drug abuse specialist and adolescent having drug abuse disorders. It enables specialists to have a meaningful interaction with patients, as well as, with the patient’s family members without cultural differences hindering their interaction. Cultural competence enables the specialist to be responsive to cultural beliefs of the patient thus bringing about positive outcomes. Drug abuse specialist needs given knowledge, skills and attitudes in order to develop cultural competency.Drug abuse specialists need to have knowledge about the patient culture (Saldana, 2010).


This includes the patient’s history, family systems, values, traditions and artistic expression. The specialist must also have knowledge on how these cultural elements affect the patient’s behaviors, attitude and disorder. This knowledge will enable the specialist to design the best treatment approach for the patient. The specialist must also possess knowledge about the communication patterns and styles of the patient. Communication between patients and the specialist is critical in the diagnosis and treatment process. Knowledge of the patient’s communication pattern and style enhances the effectiveness of the communication process. The specialist must also have knowledge on how professional values may conflict or accommodate the cultures of different patients.


The specialist must also assess skills such as the ability to understand and accommodate different communication styles and patterns in order to promote cultural competency (Saldana, 2010). The practitioner must demonstrate the ability to interview and discern the meaning from the interaction with the patient. Negotiation skills are also critical to the development of cultural competency. The specialist must have the ability to negotiate with patient in order to encourage the patient to drop cultural elements that have a negative impact on treatment.  The specialist must also exhibit a high degree of tolerance towards other people’s culture. Attitudes such as acceptance of ethnic differences, empathy, warmth and professionalism are also critical to the development of cultural competency. The specialist also needs to manage stereotypes and biases.


 Dimensions of Culture that Impact Adolescent Treatment and Prevention of Substance Abuse

The Hosfstede model of cultural dimensions identifies five dimensions of culture that have an impact on healthcare. The first dimension is individualism versus collectivism. This dimension focuses on the relationship between the patient and various groups such as family, society and school of which the patient is a part (Gale, 2006). In collective culture, the group is viewed as the basic unit of society while, in individualistic cultures, the individual is given a central position.


Collective culture promotes a high level of interdependence among members of the same community. The group assumes responsibility of its members. Thus, collective cultures act as protective factors against drug abuse.The second dimension is power distance. Power distance is the degree to which less powerful members of a given society accept that power is distributed unequally (Gale, 2006). Societies with high powerful distance have a clear hierarchy and a defined pecking order thus promoting predictability and stability. Thus, high power distance provides a protective power against drug abuse and vice versa. The third dimension of culture is uncertainty avoidance (Gale, 2006). Uncertainty avoidance refers to the amount of effort that an individual is willing to make in order to reduce unexpected events.


Individuals with high uncertainty avoidance prefer explicit directions and detail about the procedures of care. On the other hand, individuals with low uncertainty avoidance may get irritated by detailed explanations and directions. The fourth dimension is masculinity (Gale, 2006). High masculine cultures value social power, control and achievement. They have significant differences in gender roles. This culture may undermine treatment and prevention of substance abuse because it does not promote cooperation among family members. The final dimension is long term orientation. Long term orientation refers to the extent to which a given cultural group values long standing as opposed to short-term goals. Long term oriented cultures are likely to support treatment and prevention efforts.  


 Cultural Groups that Adolescents Join

The culture of adolescent can be defined in terms of race, ethnic group, age, gender, religion, cultural orientation, physical status, subculture, psychiatric status, and economic status (Ray & Ksir, 2002). Some of these cultural groups may promote drug abuse behaviors while others may discourage and even punish this behavior. For instance, religion is a cultural element that discourages drug abusing behaviors. Adolescents who associate themselves with certain religious values are least likely to develop drug abusing behaviors. On the other hand, subcultures such as delinquent gangs can support drug abuse behaviors (Ray & Ksir, 2002). Adolescent who join such subcultures interact with people who have negative behaviors thus leading to the development of overt behaviors such as drug abuse. Joining cultural groups lead to assimilation of adolescents into these groups where they acquire the value, norms and identity of these groups.  


 Impact of Explanatory Model on Patient’s and Family’s Treatment and Prevention Practice

Explanatory model is a framework that attempt to explain how people make sense of their illnesses (DeLisser, 2009). Understand the explanatory model of the patient and family will enable the specialist to understand how the patient perceives his drug abuse problem, as well as, the personal and social meaning associated with the drug abuse disorder.  The explanation models also help the specialist to reveal the expectation of the patient and his family concerning what will happen in the future.Inaccurate explanation model may hinder the treatment and prevention practice.


In some cases, adolescent have misconceptions about their drug abuse problem. Some adolescent often think that drug abuse behavior is norm among other teenagers and, therefore, the problem is not unique to his situation. Such misconception about the illness may hinder the patient from seeking medical treatment or taking preventive measures. Having unrealistic expectations about future outcomes can also hinder the treatment and prevention of drug abuse problems.Similarly, some cultural groups associate illness with spiritual matter (DeLisser, 2009). When a person fall seeks they tend to seek spiritual remedies for the patient problem. Such explanatory theories have an impact on willingness to accept treatment interventions.


 Impacts of Cultural Movements on Substance Use and Abuse

Moving from culture to another can promote substance use and abuse behaviors (Ray & Ksir, 2002). Cultural groups influence the behaviors of individual by impacting on the values, identity and traditions. Adolescents who move from one cultural group to another are likely to get exposed to negative influence leading to development substance use and abuse behaviors.


 Conclusion

Culture has a significant impact on drug abuse cases among adolescents. Various dimensions of culture act as risk factors for drug abuse problems while others act as protective factors. In order to administer effective interventions, drug abuse specialist need to have an understanding of the patient’s culture and how to affects his disorder. Culture also affects how patient respond to treatment. Therefore, specialists need to design interventions that respond to unique aspects of the patient’s culture.


 References

DeLisser J. (2009) Kleinman’s Explanatory Model of Illness. November 4, 2013. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444311686.app2/pdf

Gale D. (2006). Cultural Sensitivity beyond Ethnicity: A Universal Precautions Model. Journal of Allied Health & Nursing. 4 (1):

Ray O. & Ksir C. (2002). Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. USA. McGraw-Hill Publishers

Saldana D. (2010). Cultural Competency. October 4, 2013. http://www.hogg.utexas.edu/uploads/documents/cultural_competency_guide.pdf


 

Friday, 30 May 2014 12:44

Politics

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Politics


Politics is a means to an end that influence public policies. Nurses’ political involvement leads to the formulation of public policy.  Therefore, if nurses want to influence policy outcomes, they have to be involved in politics.   Nurses can exert pressure political pressure in the workplace by affecting the development of institutional policies, the community through community activism on local boards, professional organizations by participating on committees or serving as officers and government through involvement in campaigns and voting.  Nurses hold a highly respected and trusted stature in the society.


The society views them as professionals who are greatly interested in the welfare of others.  Their role in health promotion is undisputed.  The support of such issues can affect the world and state health greatly. Therefore, nurses have a responsibility to investigate and participate in political activities. According to Carolyn (2009), a significant part of every nurse’s responsibility is to act as a client’s advocate.  Nurses encounter cases of political-ethical tension emanating from clashes between cost-effectiveness   and quality of care, and between personal values and professional ethics and goals.  Professional nursing practice obligates individual nurses to participate in public policy formulation part of their professional work.


 Participating in political actions and awareness campaigns enable nurses to shape the health and welfare of the community and enable them effectively participate in their contracts with citizens.  Nurses have valuable, extraordinary knowledge and skills, which position them for political involvement and the formulation of policies.  Occupational and environmental health nurses play a great responsibility in influencing public policies related to the American workforce by using political action to ensure effective communication. The complex health care policies demand the knowledge and efforts of organized groups and the dedicated efforts of individuals.


Various nursing associations such as the American Nurses Association are instrumental in advocating and protecting rights and interests of nurse in all governmental levels.  The increased nurses’ needs and community changes have resulted into the emergence of other nurses organizations based on specialty such as setting-specific nursing, system-specific disorders or conditions, ethnic-cultural-specific, and education level specific (Mathews, 2012).  These nurses’ organizations play great roles in political advocacy, informing nurses, disseminating professional knowledge and professional development of nurses.  The advocacy of these organizations is motivated by moral and ethical principles of nursing and seeks to influence policies by working with political, economic and social systems in the state for ideas or causes that can result to allocation of resources that promote nursing and healthcare (Matthews 2012).


The associations are created to articulate the values of nursing, integrity, practice and policies.  The American Nurses Association (ANA) is the lead organization that deliberates on these ideas and develops them based on the nursing codes of ethics and framework documents that serve as the basis of nursing (Code of Ethics, The Social Policy statement and the scope and standard of practice in nursing). Each specialty organization advocates for nurses according to the goals of its members, specialty and the setting of the practice.  They educate the policy makers, public, health care administrators and nursing professionals on certain issues. Nursing organizations conduct or sponsor annual state legislative days, offer internships and fellowship on policies, and conduct policy workshops designed to give nurse information on current issues affecting nursing and health care. 


These organizations also provide advocates with access to experienced nurses who are willing to serve as mentors to young nurses.Joining a professional organization is an important way of ensuring individual advocacy efforts.  Professional nurses organizations have more resources, and can strategize effectively to bring nurses’ perspective in health policies.   They are able to monitor policies and offer members ways to learnt about the policies.  They are also sources of reliable information related to policies and issues surrounding nursing profession.  The organizations also support individuals who advocate positive nursing policies.  These organizations enjoy the strength of numbers, which enable them to exert positive pressure on the legislative arena. They have legitimate power to act on behave of nurses, referent power and reward power due the size of resources they have.


 References

Abood  S. (2007). "Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena". The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 12, issue 1; p2

Carolyn Clark (2009). Creative nursing leadership and management. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. MA, USA.

Matthews J. (2012) "Role of Professional Organizations in Advocating for the Nursing Profession." The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing.  Vol. 17, issue 1, p3


 

Friday, 30 May 2014 12:26

Management Of Information Security

Written by

Management Of Information Security


 About the company

Micros Systems, Inc. deals with the manufacturing and sells of property management systems and Computer-based -point- of- sales, (POS) and it targets the hospitality industry around the globe. This includes theme parks, hotels, restaurants, casinos, institutional feeding, specialty retail and cruise ships among other similar markets around the globe. MICROS Systems, Inc further provides its customers with services such as configuration and acquisition, system planning, remote and on-site installations, remote and on-site support, repairs and hardware, updates training, supplies and spare parts and manages the hosting of services and software for its customers.In the provision of these services, MICROS can sometimes take control and custody of some nonpublic sensitive information owned by its customers. In so doing, it is the responsibility of MICROS to protect this sensitive and private information of their customer when it’s under its control and custody.


Furthermore, all consultants, contractors, employees, customers, visitors, temporary employees, vendor personnel and visitors having accesses to IT facilities controlled or owned by MICROS or assets, information, networks and information systems, are expected to be responsible in protecting the data and assets that are vital for effective operation of the company’s business.The Enterprise Information Security Standard and Policy have the purpose of promoting and facilitating information security with the company’s enterprise worldwide. The information security policy statement indicates how the company can achieve its objectives of maintaining a high level of security. All users and company employees have to be aware of this policy information on security. The policy statement clearly shows how all users should use and access the information systems, facilities, assets and technology resources controlled and owned by MICROS Systems, Inc.


 Security Policies for MICROS Systems, Inc.

1. Access Management policy

A. Purpose

The Access management policy will help MICROS Systems, inc in ensuring that there are appropriate mechanisms that guide on legal and business requirements that guide on tracking, administration and control of use and access of company information and business systems owned by MICROS Systems Inc. this policy has the purpose to protect any unapproved and unauthorized activity that relates to distribution, retrieval, and destruction of this information as system.


B. Scope

Access Management policy affects any person using or accessing MICROS System, Inc. technology and information resources or facilities. These individuals include, but not limited to temporary employees, contractors, consultants, visitors, customers, vendor personnel and other persons working collectively or individually. The policy also covers all information systems, technology facilities and networks leased, controlled or owned by MICROS Systems, Inc. It also applies to other third party resources and equipments that are connected to this company’s networks, systems and facilities (Purser, 2004).


C. Policy

The Access Management policy is about the use and access of business and information resources that shall be administered and controlled by MICROS Systems, Inc. The Access Management policy will be guided by both legal and business requirements. It will establish a standard for the password and authentication access, standards for authentication administration and standards for third party access (Purser, 2004).

D. Enforcement

I. Punishments or rewards for breaking the policy


 Any form of activity or action that violates the Access Standards and Policy will automatically result to disciplinary action or even termination of contract or employment depending on the severity of the mistake. Users wishing to undertake an activity which can violate the Standard or policy have to request in written and verbal complaint to her or his manager and to the Human resource Department Management team about the issue. This has to be conducted by undertaking the act. Violation of the access security policy or any other security policy does constitute to breaching of trusts between MICROS Systems, Inc. and users of this company, information resources or other assets resources. This will lead to negative consequences, such as the end of contractual and employment relationships. Otherwise, who users who maintain integrity, confidentiality and proper use of the company’s resources, they will have positive relations with the company leading to long terms contractual and employment relationships. They will be trusted with other bigger responsibilities among other rewards.


 Ii. the policy enforced and monitored

This policy will be enforced by the Chief security Officer or any other appointed designate staff. All users and individuals who can gain access to MICROS Systems information resources and assets are given a prior notification in written form notifying them of this new policy. Any questions that the staff and non staff members will have about the information access policy or standards can ask the Chief Security Officer. The users of the company resources or those who can access including third parties are expected to notify the Chief security Officer whenever they think it is possible that the Access Standards and policy cannot be executed for any particular reason or a given situation.


The Chief Officer will then present a statement of risk to the individual accompanied, by alternative control measures, to compensate the earlier stated requirement for acceptance or review. The Chief security Officer has the power to provide users with Standards and policy variance depending on the risk statement. Whenever the Standard or Policy is violated the Chief Security Officer will be notified within a short period, and this is when he will determine the action that needs to be taken. The chief Security officer or his or her designate will be responsible for monitoring the access policy. The Standards and policy will be reviewed on an annual basis.


The policy enforcement team will reevaluate the policy to determine individuals violating the policy provisions. The team will also determine the rate at which cases of violations in access have decreased or increased since the passing of this policy (Dhillon, 2001).Policy enforcement actions involve actions aiming at resolving the noncompliant account to information resources or assets. This involves actions such as marking which means to mark an account that is disallowed or an account that does not comply with the attributed value. Users can also be suspected by deactivating an account that falls to comply with the set standards. Finally, there is the correction in which a noncompliant is corrected (Dhillon, 2001).


 E. Definitions

Access: means obtaining information and data from an IT system

F. Revision History


 I. When the policy created or changed

Based on the applicable law constrains, MICROS Systems, Inc. has the right to terminate or modify standards and policies at any time when deemed necessary without giving users or staff a notification. At an event when a policy cannot be executed on any reason or situation, a risk statement together with controls of compensation are presented to the Chief security officer for acceptance or review. The security Officer or his designate will then provide the Standard or policy variance according to the risk statement (Vacca 2010).MICROS System has revised its access control policy in three phases. This is because the Access enforcement and control are one element of the overall Security procedure that MICROS System undertakes as a measure of its extensible system.


The access control system is based on three main assumptions. First mechanism is about software-only procedure that ensures the safety of the code within an extensible system. This means that all codes respect the preserves and interfaces of the referential integrity. Second is that, since the mechanism of access control impacts on other operations of access controls, such as methods and procedures, it ensures that resources too need to be protected by hiding their internal state. The final correction touches on the binary interposition. This happens because the company’s access control mechanism affects operations on access control within the extensible system. Therefore, it assumes the presence of other mechanisms’ on binary interposition such as the dynamic patch jump tables (Vacca 2010).


 2. Information Security Organization Policy

A. Purpose

The Information Security Organization Policy has the purpose of describing the Information Security Department of MICROS System and how the management framework of this company manages and promotes information security performance in all its business units and the whole corporation.


 B. Scope

I. Who the policy effect                 

The Information Security Organization Policy applies to all individuals using and accessing MICRO Systems, Inc. such as, facilities and information technology resources. Individuals affected include contractors, temporary employees, consultants, vendor personnel, visitors, customers and other individuals. The policy all affect all equipments managed and owned by MICROS Systems, Inc. and other equipments used by third parties who are connected to the networks and systems of the company business (Tipton, and Nozaki, 2012).


 Policy

The Information Security Organization Policy is concerned with ensuring there is an appropriate capability of the organization in promoting, treating and managing guidelines, procedures, standards, and security policies that support compliance to data privacy, network security, and regulatory compliance of the industry, security operations, security awareness and handling of security incidents (Vacca 2010).


 C. Enforcement

I. punishments or rewards are there for breaking the policy

Having a working successful security policy that has been enforced in an organization has its unique rewards to the organization. Policy assessment and compliance program have the benefit of helping MICRO Systems, Inc in enforcing information security that is able to deal will all the potential threats that originate internally or externally and can hinder the company from attaining its goals. The organization is also able to develop compliance tools, and it becomes possible to measure compliance automatically within the network.


Policy compliance is also related to data events on security given by other security sources, such as, firewalls instruction detection, anti-virus software, vulnerability assessment products and instruction detection systems (Tipton, and Nozaki, 2012).The failure of MICRO Systems, Inc to establish the Information Security Organization Policy means that the organization will fail to estimate the impact of security incidents and consequently tampers with the reputation, credibility and relationship that the company has with its key stakeholders. Therefore, the competitiveness and future success and stability of MICRO Systems, Inc will be negatively affected (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).


 Ii. How is the policy enforced and monitored?

Enforcement

After the establishment of an information security policy is completed and approved, enforcement starts. The efforts made in creating the policy have no impact unless this step is followed by sufficient enforcement and corporation. Policy assessment and compliance program are essential in helping the organization to enforce its information security policy. A review team on policy compliance shows whether the designed security control is used correctly and properly employed (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).


 Monitoring and assessment

The first step in establishing an effective Information Security Organization Policy is when the security department evaluates its information assets and identifies the sources of threats to the assets. This way the department will be able to know the assets that are most vulnerable to threats when compared to others. The department should also not consider the aspect of monetary value alone in determining the threats to its assets. It has to look at the bigger picture of how poor security mechanism can cost to the reputation of the whole organization of MICROS System Inc. Therefore, by determining both the intrinsic and monetary value the department will accurately gauge the work of its Information Security Organization Policy. In calculating the monetary value, the departments also consider the impact of loss when the systems, networks and assets data are compromised.


The intrinsic value can be estimated when the department considers how the security incidents can affect the relationships, reputation and credibility that MICROS System, Inc. will have with its stakeholders (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).In monitoring and assessing the potential threats, the department will have to look into the internal and external threats. External threats include aspects like Trojan horse, worms, viruses and attempts of hacking among other threats that have the potential of harming the security systems of the company. Internal threats that the department assesses and monitors includes surfing of Internet content that is objectionable, abuses of critical data and systems and inappropriate internet use. These threats originate from the inside perpetrators within MICROS Systems Inc. who have access to network systems of the company among other data assets (Alexander, Finch and Sutton, 2008).


Based on these threats to the company’s assets the next important step that needs to be undertaken by the department is the development of Information Security Organization Policy as the basic foundation in the assessment of risks. This way the department will succeed in weighing the company security exposure and the assessment enables MICROS System Inc. To decide if its information is adequately protected, under protected or overprotected. The goal of the assessment has to focus on minimizing expenses and at the same time ensuring that the organization is not exposed to unnecessary risks. The assessment and monitoring will help the department determine proper resource allocation once there is an effective security policy in place (Tipton, and Nozaki, 2012).


 D. Definitions

Compliance: is a set of assurance to guarantee that an organization complies with its set policies, such as security access and organization policy.


 E. Revision History

MICROS System, Inc has the ability to terminate and modify the Information Security Organization Policy and Standards at any time it feels necessary. This is done within the constraints of applicable regulation and laws, and it should be done by giving notices to the company stakeholders. Revisions have to be published and drafted with a date and this will give the users awareness on the policy status and age. This practice though has its challenges including legal issues especially when employees are still following an outdated policy. Therefore, the organization has to ensure that a change or revision of its policy and Standards on security is informed to new and old employees. Companies with a high rate of turnover have, in fact, faced significant challenges because employees tend to use outdated policies leading to legal issues. Therefore, MICROS System, Inc, in implementing this policy is expected to indicate the expiry dates of the policy and at the same time to prevent temporary policies becoming permanent (Whiteman, and Mattord, 2010).


 Conclusion

As policies assists organizations in avoiding litigation and maintaining the high level of security, they have to know that employees need to be informed of these two policies and shown what is acceptable and not acceptable actions and behaviors within the organization. The development of these two policies, Information Security Organization Policy and Access Management policy will help MICROS System Inc. improve productivity of the business and avoid potentially embracing situations arising from security breaches. Employees are called to report any suspected or actual breaches of security to their regional security officers and managers immediately for the necessary actions to be taken.


 References

Whiteman, M and Mattord, H (2010) Management of Information Security. Cengage Learning, p 152-53

Tipton, H and Nozaki, M (2012) Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, Volume 6. CRC PRESS, P 199

Alexander D, Finch A and Sutton, D (2008) Information Security Management Principles: An ISEB Certificate. BCS, the Chartered Institute p 98

Vacca J (2010) Managing Information Security. Syngress, p 190

Dhillon, G (2001) Information Security Management: Global Challenges in the New Millennium. Idea Group Inc p 222

Purser, S (2004) a Practical Guide to Managing Information Security. Artech House, p 89


 

Friday, 30 May 2014 12:14

Transformational Leadership

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 Transformational Leadership


It was noted that the number of patient fall among in-patients had increased significantly. This trend has mainly been noted among elderly patients. The trend is threatening to jeopardize the quality of the care delivery process. Patient falls are a significant cause of non-fatal injuries among patients and account for 15% of re-hospitalization case across the country (Currie, 2012). This problem requires urgent attention in order to enhance patients’ experiences.The leadership approach that is most suitable in addressing this situation is the transformational leadership approach. Transformational leadership focuses on introducing changes into the organization (Slavkin, 2010). In order to address the problem of patient fall, the hospital needs to make changes in the way it operates.


Transformational leaders are responsible for initiating the change process. They do this by identifying a vision. A vision is generally a mental image of the desired situation (Trofino, 2008). For instance, the vision in this case may be to have a healthcare environment that is free from falls and accident.Identifying a vision is just the first step in introducing change. The second, and the most important, step is communicating this vision to others and inspiring them to pursue this vision (Slavkin, 2010). This is one of the major differences between transformational leadership and other leadership approaches. Transformational leadership approach emphasizes on getting the followers to buy in the vision and the idea proposed by the leader.


It focuses on ensuring the followers own this vision rather than coercing them to accept the vision. Ownership of the vision can only be created through effective communication. In this case, the leader needs to communicate his change ideas and how these ideas are important in addressing the problem of patients fall.Transformational leadership also focuses on ensuring that followers participate and make meaningful contributions towards the realization of the vision (Slavkin, 2010). The leader identifies the vision but allows the follow to formulate strategies for achieving this vision. He gives an opportunity for each follower to make contributions. In this case, the vision is to have a hospital environment that is free from patient falls. The transformational leaders will take followers’ suggestion on how this vision can be realized.


The transformational leader does not micromanage people but focuses on empowering the followers so as they can achieve the desired goals. In this case, the leader can empower followers through training, mentorship program, provision of equipments, and all other requirements.  Empowerment and participation of employees reinforces the sense of ownership of the change idea.Transformational leadership also focuses on creating a relationship of trust and complementarity between the leader and followers (Trofino, 2008). The leader acknowledges the importance of the role played by the followers in the realization of the quality vision. He is also concerned about the welfare of employees.


This relationship encourages the followers and the leader to become identical. The relationship also raises the motivation of both the leader and followers to the highest levels leading to increased performance.Transformational leadership will accommodate desirable outcomes because this approach focuses on creating ownership of the change idea and the change process among the followers (Slavkin, 2010). A strong sense of ownership in the ideas will ensure that the followers continue to pursue this vision even in the absence of the leader. The vision does not die with the departure of the leaders since others have bought this vision. Transformational leadership will also accommodate desirable success because it emphasizes on bringing every person on board (Trofino, 2008). All members of the organizations are encouraged to participate and make suggestions that will help in solving the problem. Wide scale involvement of employees in hospital activities enhances innovativeness as different employees introduce different ideas for solving the problem.


 References

Currie, L. (2012). Fall and Injury Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2653/

Slavkin, H. (2010). Leadership for Healthcare in the 21st Century. Journal of Healthcare Leadership. 35- 41

Trofino, J. (2008). Transformational Leadership in Health Care. Nursing Management. 26 (8): 42- 47


 

Friday, 30 May 2014 11:49

The Roar of the Tiger Mom

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The Roar of the Tiger Mom


Being a parent is always a major challenge to many people. The main challenge when raising a kid is to provide proper guidance and ensure that all the needs required by a child are provided. There are various approaches that parents can use to take care and raise a child depending on their cultural up brings and experiences. Many parents try to raise their children by imitating the way they were raised by their parents since to them that is the right approach in raising a kid to be successful in life. However, some approaches cannot hold in the present day and we are left to wonder which the best approaches to raise a child are and which ways are not appropriate. However, there is no real answer to this question because every person has his or her own way of raising a child.


The Roar of the Tiger Mom by Chua is an article that has sparked a lot of debates in which some may agree that the Chinese parenting approach is the best while others may consider it as an extreme case or out fashioned way of parenting. This paper takes the position that Chinese upbringing is an ancient method that does not encourage the element of socialization among children (Chua 2011). This is a method that does not prepare children to the reality of modern day world that has been transformed by globalization.Army presents great ideas of raising a child, but I consider these approaches as being extremes. The main concern for many Chinese families is to show that parenting is about putting in effort and hours towards successes in education, adhering to the hierarchical approach in parenting and prioritizing on education.


These way children are expected to take education too seriously and attain A‘s in all subjects. Based on this parenting, Chua states, “Chinese students have been found to be among the best students with best grades, more focused and attain high qualifications” (Chua 2011).In short, they have managed to jump through the hoops. This approach of parenting can have indirect and direct effects on a child’s emotions and behavior. Patrick Goldstein t writes, “The Chinese-style is an extreme method of parenting whereby daughters are not allowed to play, watch TV and get grades below an A as they prepare to be successful in life” (Goldstein, p 156). Goldstein goes ahead to argue that the individuals who have transformed the world o a new level in the past 25 years were Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates who are individuals who never completed their college educations yet are living a successful life.


These are the kind of people who of they had been brought up with the strict type of parenting of the Tiger mom, they would not have been in the position they are in today.I do disagrees with the parenting Code by Chua because it seems like an extreme form of parenting that makes children to experiences negative coping efficacy and life events. The research by Zhou and colleague shows (2008) Chinese children with parents using authoritative form of parenting display more internalizing problems than their peers whose parents are not strict authoritarians.


These children were experiencing problems lack frustration and anger that is side effects of strict parenting and do evoke negative reactions (Zhou, et al, 2008).This is because the strict parenting style as stipulated by neurotic ambitions that parents might have. However, there are children who adapt well to life and even excel in both their education and career achievement without having to be to be parented by strict expectations of excelling in life. Some of the Hollywood figured who top in the entertainment industry yet did not get unaware to Harvard Yard include Scott Rudin, David Geffen, Steve jobs, Jeffery Katzenberg, Ron Meyer, Peter Jackson and Quentin Tarantino.


There are also successful MBAs and lawyers in Hollywood, but have in them the raw spirit of inspiration and invention (Kolbert, 2011).Parenting is in the western culture is different from the Chinese type of parenting. Western parents are less strict than Chua’s definition of the Chinese parenting. Western parents provide support to their children by giving them a chance to discover what they want and to develop their interests into talents (Chang et al 2009). Chinese children are required to respect the wishes of their parents and do what they expect from them. They have to impress their parents so that they become acceptable. This is different from the western way of parenting, and it is common for a Chinese person to perceive western children as being spoilt.


However, the case of spoiling children is not a true aspect but what every parent does is to provide the child and enable the child live within their parent’s limits. Setting limit is a crucial element in parenting for the western parents.Bring up a child in the Chinese method of parenting is an element that has been passed from one generation to another. In the past Chinese society, there was a high level of poverty children were raised strictly. Disobeying parents and other elders meant that the child would be punished by not being given education. Gaining education then was a privilege and only meant for obedient children (Eisenberg, and Morris 2002).


However, nowadays, education is vital and denying a child education is a criminal act. This have now changed because one has to go to school so as to earn money. Changes in the world also mean that the way of raising children has to change too. The poverty level of China has drastically decreased, and people can access education at low costs. Murphy states that, “Chua’s family and Chinese way of parenting falls under the ancient method of raising children” (Murphy, 156).There are now many business opportunities and ventures which can give a young person prosperity of a life time without having to attend the most prestigious universities around the world.


Globalization has, in fact, boosted opportunities for young talents and success in the present world is defined by having a good personality. For example get a good job requires one to the interrelation with other people and good communication skills. Therefore, the world has changed, and it requires people who are innovative, team players and knowledgeable. These elements come together in forming a whole rounded person that cannot be created in the Chinese way of parenting. The Chinese way has strict principles, no qualities and is trapped in the past way of raising children. The way Chinese parents execute their values and principles as they raise children is way too exaggerated.


 WORK CITED

Kolbert E (2011) America’s top parent. New York Times

Goldstein P (2011) Tiger Mom vs. Tiger Mailroom. Los Angeles times.

Zhou et al, (2008) Relations of Parenting to Chinese Children’s Experience Child development JOURNAL, 79(3): 493–513.

Chang L, et al (2009) Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression 17(4): 598–606.

E Isenberg and Morris A (2002). Children’s emotion-related regulation. In: Kail RV, editor. Advances in child development and behavior. Vol. 30. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2002.

Eisenberg N, Ma Y, Chang, L (2007) Relations of effortful control, reactive under control and anger to Chinese children’s adjustment. Development and Psychopathology. 19:385–409.

Murphy J (2011) in defense of being a kid. Dartmouth College

Chua, A (2011). Chinese mothers are superior.

Chua A (2011) The Roar of the tiger mom. Wall street journal



Friday, 30 May 2014 09:53

QI Plan

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QI Plan


 The implementation of a quality improvement plan is among the most essential aspects of bolstering the standards of health care in any hospital. There are numerous attributes that help in enhancing the outcomes of a quality improvement plan. One of the most notable aspects within this framework is the alignment of the organization’s mission to the plan. The relevant framework of alignment facilitates for a smooth implementation process.


Another critical factor of success involves the issue of performance measurement. This aspect is inherently associated with quality improvement plan. Adequate strategies for performance measurement must be used additionally, the leadership systems within an organization are massively essential in terms of streamlining the implementation blueprint of the QI plan. This analysis focuses on the pertinent aspects of the quality improvement plan for Devereux Hospital. In order to realize the overall organizational goals, the implementation of this plan must be founded on a solid leadership framework. These are critical aspects that will be evaluated in the entire document. The plan has been subdivided into distinctive components in order to enhance implementation efficiency.


 QI Plan Part 1: Consumerism

Devereux Hospital is the chosen organization for this quality improvement plan. The hospital’s core mission is to provide exceptional inpatient and outpatient medical services. Additionally, this organization has an excellent mechanism for the management and treatment of emergency services (Ogilvie, 2010). Since the hospital’s establishment, it has consistently provided exceptional medical services to many patients. It is thus an essential pillar within the framework of community health. This part of the quality improvement plan focuses on how the Devereux Hospital will enhance the quality of treatment or patient outcomes.


Firstly, high levels of accuracy will be achieved while collecting data from patients. Such accuracy is a fundamental aspect that helps in ensuring that the relevant treatment is provided to patients. Apart from accuracy in data collection, another vital aspect that underlines the efficiency of this quality improvement plan to patients’ treatment is that it is excellently aligned to the diagnostic framework (Hernandez, 2009). The levels of accuracy in the diagnosis process are inherently connected to the treatment efficiency.


 QI Part II: Quality Data Collection

In the health care sector, one of the most essential aspects stipulated within the framework of compliance is accuracy in data collection. This is an essential attribute that is required for the Devereux Hospital to be accredited. In line with this aspect, the QI plan seeks to improve the standards used by medical staff and nurses in the collection of data from patients. It greatly facilitates for quality attainment within the overall framework of treating patients. Another vital aspect of consideration in data collection is the digitization of records. The Devereux Hospital must use technological platforms in the management and collection of data (Johnson, 2011). This is vital in terms of the attainment of the stipulated standards of accreditation. There are various ways in which the QI plan for technological integration in data collection will help.


It will greatly bolster the efficiency of organizational operations.Apart from organizational operations at the hospital, technology is an excellent platform that enhances cost effectiveness. The management of costs is immensely crucial towards the realization of organizational efficiency in the health care sector. In view of this aspect, the Devereux Hospital is not an exception. This is why the QI plan is based on an all inclusive framework. The entire workforce in this organization has the fundamental responsibility to maintain the required accreditation standards while collecting data. This applies to the senior nurse leaders and also the new employees within the medical team. There are various tools necessary for the collection of quality data in this organization. The first tool is the use of records obtained by nurses from patients (Ginter, 2013).


The second tool involves the collection of data by physicians within the diagnostic framework. Adequate caution must be taken by the different staff members to ensure that the collected data is not subjected to irrelevant alterations. Apart from the collection of data, another vital aspect of the QI plan is that the hospital requires adequate systems for displaying performance data. One of the best tools that will facilitate for this framework is the use of technological devices such as spreadsheets and other customized computer applications. In view of such aspects (Johnson, 2011), the QI plan will be greatly beneficial towards the enhancement of data collection standards in this organization.


 QI Part III: Managing and Improving Quality

The management and improvement of quality is the next component of the QI plan for the Devereux Hospital. This component narrows down on a comprehensive improvement scheme that takes into consideration the pertinent elements of the QI plan that are directly connected to the management platforms (Kelly, 2011). Within this framework, the differentiation of the quality improvement process and performance measurement is vitally essential. Performance measurement narrows down on the evaluation of the strides or steps that have been taken by a health care organization towards the implementation of the QI plan. In essence, performance measurement is founded on a solid framework of measurable indicators. These indicators are vitally essential in terms of facilitating for the management and improvement of quality in the hospital (Block, 2006). For this QI plan, one of the most notable indicators is the accuracy levels attained during data collection. In view of this indicator, high levels of accuracy will underline the organization’s excellent alignment towards the different platforms of the QI plan. In contrast, minimal standards of accuracy will be indicators of the organization’s lack of adequate mechanisms for alignment to the stipulated standards of accreditation.


The framework of performance measurement must be accompanied by reliable mechanisms of intervention. In essence, the interventional framework ensures that adequate remedies are introduced into each setback. On the other hand, quality improvement processes are those strategies integrated into an organization in order to facilitate for the attainment of competence. These strategies are integral components within the QI plan blueprint for change. Since the organization’s goal is to provide world-class health care services. The blueprint for quality improvement is excellently aligned to this organizational goal. It is fundamentally pertinent for the organization to use accredited standards within the framework of comparing performance. At the Devereux Hospital, this will be implemented through a timeline. Within the framework of this timeline, targets can be set in order to determine the organization’s overall alignment to the QI plan (Lighter, 2010). Apart from target setting, another vital standard of comparing performance involves accreditation. The organization’s accreditation by external regulatory bodies will be an excellent indicator of quality attainment.


 QI Plan Part IV: Implementing and Revising

The implementation phase is the most crucial stage within the framework of the QI plan. Adequate strategies must be used in the entire plan. The first pertinent aspect within the implementation blueprint is the identification of performance activity outcomes. There are various outcomes intended for the performance activity. Firstly, the enhancement of the quality of patient outcomes is a fundamental target (Ogilvie, 2010). This will underline the ability of the hospital to align itself to the quality improvement plan. The second aspect that will underline quality outcomes is the alleviation of the time taken to respond to patients. In view of this platform, there should be no delays within the entire framework of treating patients. Additionally, competence of the hospital’s medical staff is another fundamental outcome that characterizes the quality improvement plan.


The enlightenment of patients is another vital aspect of the QI plan. In this hospital, all staff members will be enlightened about the plan using the latest technological systems. For instance, handouts will be issued to the staff members in order to familiarize them with the required accreditation standards. Workshops will also be organized in order to keep the staff updated about the QI plan (Kelly, 2011). The organizational leaders will play a significant role in terms of communicating to the staff members about the QI plan. Additionally, organizational leaders must provide the relevant information concerning the entire QI initiative.


 Conclusion

This analysis provides a comprehensive blueprint of the QI plan for the Devereux Hospital. The entire plan is comprised of various parts. The effective implementation of the components of each part is massively essential towards the attainment of the different stipulated goals of the plan. All staff members in the hospital must be involved in the QI implementation framework. Additionally, the alignment of the plan to the hospital’s mission is massively essential.


References

Block, D. J. (2006). Health care outcomes management, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning

Ginter, P. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Hernandez, S. (2009). Strategic human resource management in health services, Mason,    OH: South-Western

Johnson, J. (2011). Implementing continuous quality improvement, Sudbury, MA: Jones     & Bartlett Learning

Kelly, D. L. (2011). Applying quality management in health care, Health Administration   Press

Lighter, D. (2010). Advanced performance improvement in health care, Sudbury, MA:      Jones & Bartlett Learning

Ogilvie, L. (2010). Strategic planning for nurses, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett   Learning


 

The Drive for Justice: Dirty Harry (1971) and Killer (1989)


Justice refers to the conformity to moral rightness in an action. The rightness of an action is based on ethics, rationality, law, religion and or equity. In the film industry, the aspect of justice has been predominant. Movie producers who specialize in crime films strive to show criminals, their crimes, victims of their crimes and the quest for justice.  The film Dirty Harry (1972) and The Killer (1989) are examples of crime films where the villain is killed by police in questionable circumstances.


When the criminal in the film is captured, killed or arrested, viewers perceive that justice has been served. Unfortunately, the execution of justice in this crime films is not always legal. The crime film demonstrates how the police are changing the idea and beliefs of justice. It appears as if justice using the right channels is slow and sometimes ineffective. The police are thus taking the law into their own hands violating the legal procedure of handling criminals. The appropriate research question is “what can society consider real justice?”


 Body

Author David Bordwell in the article enough to make strong men Weep analyzes how John Woos films are different compared to other Hong King films.  Bordwell (2000) demonstrates how director Woo deviates from the norm and presents detectives form a different perspective.  According to Bordwell (2000) the film the killer “is a triumph of sheer romanticism”. Police detective Li Yong is first presented as a detective who is determined to capture assassin Ah Jong. However, the detective comes to realize that Jong only kills people that deserve to die. The detective is also moved by Jong’s efforts to make amends for the innocent victims caught in his line of fire. 


For instance, detective Li realizes that Jong is looking for money to pay, for Jennie’s eye surgery. Jennie is blinded after she is caught in the middle of a shootout. Li also witnesses Jong taking an injured boy to a hospital.  Detective Li is moved by Jong’s good will and instead of arresting him, he liaise with Jong to destroy the Triad. A bromance between detective Li and assassin Jong develops.Detective Li no longer perceives Jong as a criminal though it is clear that he is. The deviation from the norm is also seen in the film Dirty Harry. Inspector Callahan is determined to arrests serial killer Scorpio who is wrecking havoc in the city by kidnapping and killing innocent civilians. When Callahan finally manages to arrest Scorpio he realizes that Scorpio cannot be charged because Callahan searched his own without a warrant (IMDb, 2013).


Scorpio is released, and Callahan is certain he would kill again. Callahan decides to take the law into his own hands and confront Scorpio on his own. Callahan eventually kills Scorpio albeit without following the proper legal channels thus sacrificing his career as a detective. In both films, it is evident that efforts to adhere to the law were thwarting efforts to capture the villains. The only way to serve justice to the victims and society was by breaking their beliefs in the law.   As detectives, Callahan and Li are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that law and order is maintained. Similarly, the law of the land outlines the proper channels that detectives have to follow when handling issues related to crime and social order.


However, when faced with a situation where the law appears to uphold criminal activities at the expense of the rest of society, the detectives have no choice but to go against the set laws.Gledhill & Neale argue that gangster films struggle with the problem of offering a convincing analysis of the relationship the genre to reality. Crime films strive to achieve the ultimate goals of providing viewers with the American Dream i.e. the acquisition of justice regardless of method (Gledhill & Neale, 1995). In Dirty Harry, inspector Callahan and villain Scorpio do not see eye to eye. Callahan is determined to have him arrested. However, the arrests become elusive as the proper legal channels become a hindrance to Callahan’s efforts to grant his residents justice.


 Callahan efforts are further thwarted as Scorpio gets an order stopping Callahan from following him. He finally decides to pursue Scorpio without authorization and kills him. The police-murderer situation in the film Killer has a twist. Assassin Jong was Li’s first main focus, but later they form a friendship and work together against the Triad i.e. the main criminal organization. In both films, the directors attempt to demonstrate the reality with regard to strategies that detectives resort to in their quest for justice. The death of the villains leads to the resolutions of a problem within a society. Gledhill & Neale argue that the death of the villains always comes off as tragic as it demonstrates the failure of a person at self-assertion, which the society refuses to acknowledge.


The death of the villains marks the end of an era of evil, and tyranny and the beginning of a new life. The dead villain is perceived as a person who has channeled his energies towards the wrong direction. The killing of the villains by detective is an indicator of society taking responsibility for letting the problem persists in society (IMDb, 2013).In the two films, the aspect of vigilante justice is evident. Vigilante justice involves and individual taking the law into one’s own hands. Detective Li is bitter with Wong Hoi’s shooting of his “friend” Jong. When the shootout at the church end and the police arrive to arrest Wong Hoi, detective Li decided to shoot him dead.


It is clear that he took the law into his own hand perceiving that Wong will not get a deserving sentence for his crime (IMDb, 2013). According to Li, Wong deserved to die and by his death justice would have been served.  In the film Dirty Harry, inspector Callahan is not impressed with the way the city is handling Scorpio’s case, and he decides to pursue him without authorization. When Callahan corners him, he shoots at him and kills him, perceiving that justice has been served. Callahan throws his badge into the river as a show of defiance against mainstream justice.The two films are also an indicator of the downfall of societal pampering of criminals. Inspector Callahan has lost patience with the existing justice system that sets Scorpio free thus giving him a chance to kill more people.


 Scorpio has continued to call chaos in the city and appears to be in control of the police and the mayor. He captures and kills ordinary citizens and demands ransom in exchange for the life of the kidnapped victims.  It appears as if Scorpio is holding the city and its resident’s hostage. For fear of losing more lives, the mayor readily gives in to the demands of Scorpio. These actions displease Callahan who believes Scorpio does not deserve to acquire the demands he is making. Unfortunately, even after gathering adequate evidence to have Scorpio arrested and charged, Callahan is still blocked from seeking justice by existing rules and Scorpio is freed (IMDb, 2013). Callahan decides to break societal justice rules, pursue and kill Scorpio as he believes that society and the justice system have failed.


Callahan makes it his individual responsibility to capture and kill Scorpio thus eradicate a madman from society.In the film, the Killer, detective Li takes matters into his own hands and kills Wong.  Detective Li brings out the concept of reorganization of justice.  He had already captured and subdued Wong.  However, detective Li shoots Wong dead believing that only through death will justice prevail.  Detective Li appears to have been overwhelmed by anger and grief. He is angered at existing systems that are too slow to respond to crime.


Additionally, Li is grieving the loss of a friend, Jong, who was killed by Wong. Wong was a leader of a criminal gang operating in Hong Kong and by eliminating him; inspector Li will have achieved some degree of social order and law in society.Crime is an important topic in society and media has gone to great lengths to demonstrate their perception of crime, criminals and the quest for justice. Unfortunately, society has a tendency to glorify crime and criminal gangs. In films, gangs involved in crime appear to have connections that allow them to thrive regardless of the suffering of a majority of citizens.


The criminal justice system also comes off as a unit that supports criminals. Criminals are perceived as untouchables and always get to be heard when they feel that their rights have been violated (Lenz, 2005). In such a situation, the concept of real justice is overshadowed by crime. Films such as Killers and Dirty Harry are examples of films where detective have found themselves in a dilemma. The detective had to make a choice between upholding the law thus allowing crime to thrive or taking matters into their own hands and eliminating the cause of crime.  The ending of these two films leaves viewers with mixed emotions because on one hand, the officers have violated the law by killing a person. On the other hand, death appears to be the ideal course of justice for the villains who have terrorizing innocent civilians.


 Conclusion

The drive for justice as depicted in the films Dirty Harry and the Killers demonstrates the dilemma that law enforcers often face. The society is full of villains and offenders that use the justice system to guarantee their freedom.  Ironically, it is this same justice system that law enforcers are required to use to investigate, capture and prosecute villains. This quest becomes complicated when the justice system favors villains. In the two films, both detective take matters into their own hands and kill the villains as a show of defiance towards the current justice systems. Reviewing the movie, it is easy to claim that justice was served through the death of the villains.  However, it cannot be ignored that the law enforcers violated the law.


 Reference

Bordwell, D. (2000). Enough to make strong men weep. Planet Hong Kong popular cinema and the art of entertainment

Gledhill & Neale (1999). Contemporary crime. The cinema book

IMDb, (2013). Dirty Harry. Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0097202/

IMDb, (2013). The Killer (1989). Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0097202/

Lenz, T. (2005). Conservatism in American crime films. Florida Atlantic University


 

Friday, 30 May 2014 09:43

Prejudice

Written by

Prejudice


Personal Reflections

  1. Research on Prejudice based on Southland
  2. Conclusions and Reflections
  3. Works Cited

The world is a social place (Brown, 2010). People interact and share experiences on various fronts. However, individuals subscribe to specific social groups based on culture, religion, ethnicity, and other elements of common interests. It is because of these differing interests that people become protective of their social groups.Throughout my life, there has always been a talk about the racial form of prejudice. However, my story of prejudice relates to my beliefs. In high-school, I embraced a religion-based value system. This was a problem particularly considering the pro-choice debates.


In line with my value system, I am not pro-choice. During discussions in school, I made my beliefs known to friends and classmates. Consequently, I experienced alienation and ridicule from my high school classmates. Regularly, they would make jokes of my religious views and beliefs. Even though I was a humble student with good mannerisms, they found fault in my beliefs and values. In the modern society, a high proportion of people subscribe to the ideology of social liberalism. I find it hard why these same people who call themselves liberals are intolerant of persons who try to embrace religious lifestyles. Religious prejudice is not exactly what Southland addresses.


The author addresses the issue of race among other themes. However, the manifestations of prejudice are same regardless of whether the difference is religion, race, or political affiliation. In view of my experience, I am particularly keen on addressing prejudice. This reflection research paper explores prejudice utilizing Nina Revoyr’s book Southland and draws conclusions and reflections about social relations in society.Nina Revoyr refers to her novels as love letters to Los Angeles. This is true because she addresses issues that she perceives to hamper expression of love. Racial prejudice is one such issue. The United States suffered a significant impact on race relations.


Americans of Japanese decent were captured and detained in camps immediately after Japan attacked the Pearl Harbor the American ship, in 1941. Americans viewed Japanese-Americans with suspicion. In fact, they regarded them as America’s enemies. Questions of racial prejudice float on Nina Revoyr’s book Southland. Soon after her Japanese grandfather Frank Sakai dies, Jackie Ishida investigates his death and uncovers that three African-American workers had been killed in his grandfather’s shop, but had not been reported. The initial feeling of Jackie was that Sakai may have been responsible for the killings. However, according to Mary, Frank’s widow, Frank adored Curtis, one of the three African-Americans.


Frank even included Curtis in his will. Item number seven on Frank’s will read, “My store, located at 3601 Bryant St., shall go to Curtis Martindale”. Therefore, Jackie wanted to fulfill Mary’s wish of wanting to profile Curtis.Through the actions of Jackie Ishida, the author of the book Southland acknowledges heroes who have the courage to talk about prejudice and help the society deal with social problems. Following Mary’s request, Jackie is ready to go places, discovering reasons for the killings, and seeking justice for the victims. Jackie is a student of law. She knows that Curtis and friends deserved justice and fair treatment as would every other member of the society. She goes to Crenshaw, Frank’s neighborhood, to meet persons who could give important information about the killings. Crenshaw was an all-black town.


There, he meets James Lanier, the youth director at Watts. Lanier was a cousin to the slain Curtis.Lanier informs Jackie that Curtis was employed in Sakai’s shop and that he and his three other neighbors were found in Frank’s meat freezer dead. According to Lanier, authorities did not solve the case. However, everyone believed that Nick Lawson, a white policeman, was responsible for brutally killing the four persons. Jackie and Lanier decide to reopen the case. After a series of investigations, the evidences gathered pointed fingers at Lawson as the murderer. For example, the information collected by Jackie and Lanier revealed that Lawson disliked black people. He would beat Curtis and his friends often.


According to the investigation done, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that racial prejudice was involved.The issue of social prejudice is a topic that is critical and has been subjected to a variety of research studies. According to Nancy Rodenborg and Laura Boisen (2010), Racial and ethnic prejudice is a fact of life, in most parts of the world. In the United States, people live in isolated neighborhoods, send their children to segregated schools, work separately, and worship separately.  In order to be able to understand prejudice and address it in society, it is important to distinguish it from other related elements such as stereotypes.


According to Whitley and Kite (2010), the emotion that a person feels during interactions with other persons, particularly from a different social group, is different from stereotypes. Prejudice is an attitude directed towards persons who are members of a specific social group.Prejudice often results from emotional or gut reaction to a member of a social group or the entire social group (Freer, 2004). People may make an emotional choice to like or dislike a person, without a conscious consideration.


These reactions may be positive or negative. Information from research also indicates that emotional reactions to social groups can come from various sources. Individuals and social groups may perceive that a specific social group threatens their own group. This leads to anxiety, fear, and hostility. It is not only perceived threats that create prejudice. Emotional reactions can also originate from the difference in goals among social groups. In addition, people may feel disgust with stigmatized groups such as lesbians, gays, foreigners, and persons with disabilities. Also, some people can become chronically intolerant of persons and groups condemned by authority figures. The issue of racial prejudice and white identity are terms that often occur in the same sentence. Understanding white identity might shade some light on racial prejudice.


The findings of the American Mosaic Survey indicated that 37 percentage of whites indicated that their racial identity was very important. However, the percentage of nonwhites who held the same view was even higher than for whites at 72%. Although the studies indicate a gap between the racial divide, it is important to note that the racial identity is significant among Americans. This is important because, then, studies are needed to investigate the reasons for the strong racial identity among members of the different racial groups. According to Croll (2007), racial identity is related to the perceived privilege thought to be gained through association with individual race.


Therefore, racial groups and individuals tend to protect their identities because they want to maintain advantages perceived to be gained through racial identity.Revoyr’s presentation of racial prejudice in a way that is not discriminatory to a particular group carries the correct image about the issue. Every group has some element of racial bias. Social groups defend the perceived superiority of their race, religion, culture, political ideology, and other aspects of difference. It is for this reason that the issue of racial prejudice should be addressed from a wider lens so that it is seen as an issue that is perpetrated by members of the white community.


Of course, whites have been the major culprits, in terms of victimization, but the society is approaching a state of balance. This implies that an objective state of mind is required from members of all social groups, in order to ensure that we move forward without the risk of a reversal of the gains achieved. Prejudice is not only about race, but it is also about other issues that define social groups.Research has been done on the various areas prone to prejudice such as class, gender, homophobia, disability, and age (Chillot, 2013).  As history has shown, the definition of prejudice by researchers is evolving. During the 1930s and 1940s principal issues were colonialism and anti-Semitism.


After the Holocaust, racism and anti-Semitism became the major forms of prejudice. According to research, prejudice is founded on the patterns that aid the human mind to think. It is a process that is the basis of prejudgment, and that cannot be changed. The human mind thinks using pre-existing patterns. This is what happens to racial, sexual, and other categories of people. Therefore, social categories are indispensable because they are a part of the human thought. In this respect, social labels are more than approximations.The implication of this theory of the human mind is that it takes time to change the human perception of situations.


It takes a great deal of time to educate social groups, and try to change the pre-existing patterns that drive our thought processes.Prejudice has no boundaries (Guimond et al. 2013). Japanese, Native Americans, Mexicans, African-Americans, Hispanics, and other racial classifications all have prejudice. They despise one racial group or the other on the basis of race. Like Jackie, we should be look at our history and investigate the ways in which we may be culprits of social prejudice. Jackie gains interest in deaths that were not recorded and investigated just because it involved two racial groups.


Our education enlightens us on equality of the human race and the need for justice for all persons. It is important to be independent and to make decisions devoid of the influences of our religion, culture, race, social class, and political affiliations.Southland explores the fragile understandings and the painful misunderstandings that often occur across lines of culture and race. It addresses a grave issue that shapes the social side of a changing society. It is truly a love letter to Los Angeles. The events of the historical period as captured in the book presents the history of the issue of race. The modern context is complex. It is not only about race, it is also about physical disabilities, religious beliefs, and other aspects of individual or group choice.


Therefore, the society must reflect fairness across all these areas.This is the foundation of racist and homophobic attitudes, which are demonstrated through our feelings, behavior, and beliefs about others. Although they may be different, racism, sexism, ageism, and homophobia share a common root in social prejudice. They are manifested in similar ways: beatings, killings, ostracization, and barriers to education, work, public places, and housing. The list of manifestations is not conclusive. Social prejudice occurs because of patterns that have been formed in the human mind. These are the patterns that we must change to influence the society gradually, towards the ideal future.


Brown, R. “Prejudice: It’s Social Psychology”. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2010

Chillot, R. “Do I Make You Uncomfortable?” Psychology Today, 46,6 (2013): 70-77

Croll, P.R. “Modeling Determinants of White Racial Identity: Results from a National Survey”. Social Forces, 86, 2(2007): 613-642

Freer, R. “LA: Race Woman: Charlotta Bass and the Complexities of Black Political Development in Los Angeles”. American Quarterly, 56, 3 (2004): 607-632

Guimond, et al. “Diversity Policy, Social Dominance, and Intergroup Relations: Predicting Prejudice in Changing Social and Political Contexts”. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 104,6 (2013): 941-958

Revoyr, N. “Southland”. New York, NY: Akashic Books, 2003

Rodenborg, N. & Boisen, L.Aversive Racism and Intergroup Contact Theories: Cultural Competence in a Segregated World”. Journal of Social Work Education, 49, 4 (2013): 564-579

Whitley, B. & Kite, M. “The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination”. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010


 

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