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Education (163)

Friday, 30 May 2014 14:32

Case Questions

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Case Questions

 Page 4

Question 1

Analytical procedures can be used in this case in determining the reasonableness of the assertion. This is if it is reasonable for each cookie to be having 7 chocolate chips. A suggestion for the analytical procedure would be to bake some chocolate chip cookies of the same size with seven and eight chips then weigh them so that to determine the difference of their weight and also the weight of Tate’s cookies in order to find out if the weight is close to what is expected.

 Question 2

In order to offer the assurance that all the cookies have at least 7 chocolate chips, the procedure that can be used is through counting the number of the chocolate chips in the sample of the real chocolate chip cookies. Through doing this, it will prove that there are at least 7 chocolate chips in every cookie.

 Page 5

Question 1

The objective of the attestation procedure that has been stated above is to determine whether every cookie has at least seven chips.

 Question 2

The attribute that is present in this case is that there are about seven chocolate chips for every cookie that has been selected while the exception for this is that, for every cookie that is selected, there aren’t at least seven chocolate chips.

 Question 3

The population in which a conclusion is being drawn from is the number of cookies that are being produced which are going to be sold from bake Shop’s assertion.

 Question 4

What will be considered as one item is one cookie. Since there are many cookies being produced, it will not be possible to consider one cookie as a unit. Selecting one cookie as one item will help in reducing the time needed for the sampling procedure. 


Friday, 30 May 2014 11:57

Homework Assignment No. 2

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Homework Assignment No. 2

Qn. 1

In January 2010 the Bank de Japan (the Central Bank of Japan) reported that bills and coins outside the banks were 350 billion. Japanese banks had checkable deposits of 100 billion and savings deposits and time deposits of 1500 billion. Currency inside the banks was 30 billion. Japanese banks had deposits at the Bank of Japan of 296 billion. Calculate:

a. The bank’s reserves_____ 326 billion_________

=Currency + bank deposits

=30 billion + 296 billion

= 326 billion

b. The monetary base_______ 380 billion ________

=currency (bills and coins) + bank reserves

=350 billion + 326 billion

=676 billion

Monetary base = currency (bills and coins) + bank reserves

c. M1_______ 130 billion________

= checkable deposits + currency

=100billion + 30 billion

=130 billion

d. M2_______1630 billion ________

M2 = M1 + savings deposits, small time deposits, money market funds

= 130 billion + 1500 billion

Qn. 2

List the policy tools available to the Fed and sketch the way in which each tool works to change the supply of money.

  1. Open market operations
  2. Required reserve ratios
  3. Discount rate
    1. Plot the Phillips curve and the aggregate supply curve for 2008.
    2. Suppose the natural rate of unemployment is 6 percent in 2007. What is the expected inflation rate? ____ 1.93%_____
    3. Calculate Antarctica’s current account balance_____ -$100 billion ________
    4. Calculate Antarctica’s capital/financial account balance______ $70 billion________
    5. Even though the US offers very low interest rates, the US dollar has been appreciating with respect to currencies of developing countries. Why? Illustrate your answer with a graph.

This is the purchase or sale of government securities (treasury bonds and bills) in the open market by the Federal Reserve. It is used to increase or decrease the money supply.

     Government securities

                                                Money Supply

This is the percentage of deposits a bank must hold as reserves. An increase in the reserve ratio lowers the money multiplier and money supply.

                               Required Reserve Ratio


      Money Supply

Discount rate is the interest rate at which the Federal Reserve lends to commercial banks. A low discount rate makes increase money supply by making it cheaper for banks to borrow money from the Federal Reserve.

                              Discount Rate


                                                  Money Supply

Qn. 3

The First Student Bank has the following balance sheet (in millions of dollars)





Reserves at the Fed



Demand deposits


Cash in ATM's



Savings deposit


Government Securities







The required reserve ratio on all deposits is 5 percent

a. What, if any, are the bank’s excess reserves? ____ $21.5 million __________

Required reserves = $90 million × 5% = $4.5 million

Actual reserves = $25 million

Excess reserves = $25 million - $4.5 million

= $21.5 million

b. What is the bank’s deposit multiplier? _____20_________

The bank’s deposit multiplier = 1/r


= 20

 c. How much will the bank loan? _____ $21.5 million ________

The First student bank will loan its excess reserve, i.e. $21.5 million

d. How much money will be created from the funds loaned in c)? _____ $1 million________

Money created = 20 × 1/20

= $1 million

Qn. 4

The Fed conducts an open market purchase of securities. Indicate (up, down, unchanged etc) the effects of this action in the short-run.

a. The quantity of money supplied _____Up____________

b. The quantity of money demanded_______   UP__________

c. The nominal interest rate_______ Down__________

d. The real interest rate_______ Unchanged __________

Qn. 5

If the velocity of circulation is constant, real GDP is growing at 3 percent a year, the real interest rate is 2 percent a year, and the nominal interest rate is 7 percent a year.

a. What is the inflation rate? _____5%_________

Nominal interest rate = real interest rate + Inflation

Inflation rate = 7%-2%

= 5%

 b. What is the growth rate of money? ______ 8%________

Money growth + Velocity growth = Inflation rate + Real GDP growth

Since the velocity of circulation is constant = Money growth= Inflation + Real GDP growth


= 8%

c. What is the growth rate of nominal GDP? ______ 10%________

= Nominal inflation rate + Real GDP growth



 Qn. 6

Where does money come from? Watch the video to answer the question

The Federal Reserve creates money by lending imaginary amounts of money to commercial banks. As the money is lent through the monetary system, money is created. Alternatively, this can be explained using deposit. When an individual or any other entity makes a deposit at a bank, the deposit multiplies as it moves throughout the monetary system. For example, a $50 deposit can be transformed to a $1000. The multiplication depends on certain conditions, but this the process of how money is created.

  Qn. 7

In 2009, the United States is in a recession. Then the following measures are implemented: 

a. The Fed increases the quantity of money, and all other influences on aggregate demand remain the same. Illustrate the effect of the increase in the quantity of money on aggregate demand in the short-run. Indicate the change in real GDP, the price level and unemployment rate.

An increase in the quantity of money increases aggregate demand and shifts the aggregate demand curve rightward. Employment will increase.

  b. The federal government cuts taxes, and all other influences on aggregate demand remain the same. Illustrate the effect of the tax cut on aggregate demand in the short-run. Indicate the change in real GDP, the price level and unemployment rate.

 Tax cuts increases aggregate demand and consumption. From the resulting increase in investment employment also increases.


                                                 Ye          Yf

Qn. 8

In a deep recession, the FED, Congress, and the White House are discussing ways of restoring full employment. The President wants to stimulate aggregate demand but to do so in a way that will give the best chance of boosting investment and long-run economic growth.

 a. Would a tax cut best meet the President’s objectives? Explain

Yes. Tax cut is an expansionary fiscal tool.  Tax reduction will stimulate the aggregate demand more rapidly that increased government spending.  Unlike government spending, tax cuts have an immediate impact on the financial position of families. Projects associated with increased government spending takes time to implement and to have an impact. In addition, tax cuts are less likely to induce structural unemployment and reduced productivity like the case with government spending.  Households tend to purchase items that are valued higher than the cost of production as their spending increases due to reduced taxes.  The other aspect, it is easy to reverse tax rates once the economy recovers. Government projects are difficult to reverse. Lastly, taxes increase the incentive to earn, make investments, and participate in business activity and employ other people.

 b. Would an increase in government purchases best meet the President’s objectives? Explain

            An increase in the government purchases would help meet the president’s objective. The government purchase of items such as new highways, weapons, and other purchases increase aggregate demand. This is because an increase in government purchases increases the private sector growth due to increased government contracts to the private sector. This spurs employment, better wages, and increased consumption.

 c. Would an increase in the quantity of money and cut in the federal funds rate best meet the President’s objectives?

Reducing taxes and increasing the quantity of money would not be the best option for the president. This is because of the effect of the interest rate. The government will be required to increase its borrowing in order to cover for budget deficits that result from increased government spending. This leads to increased interest rates, which discourage aggregate demand and employment.

 Qn. 9

The California State government is proposing decreasing its expenditures and increasing taxes. Indicate the likely effect of this measure on:

a. Aggregate demand_____ Reduces_________

b. Real GDP________ Reduces______

c. Unemployment rate _______ Increases______

d. The government’s budget _____ Reduces_______

 Qn. 10

Some commentators argue that the economy can recover from the recession without increasing the money supply and government spending. Agree/Disagree. Explain.

I agree. This is because an increase in government spending and an increase in money supply cannot stimulate output and employment. For example, there is the effect of the interest rate. An increase in borrowing is required to finance budget deficits. The problem is that when governments increase their borrowing from the funds market, the interest rate will increase.  The increase in interest rate will discourage private investment and consumption.  This reduction in private investment and consumption is likely to offset the intended stimulus effects of increasing government spending. The result is an increase in government debts, which in turn lead to an increase in taxes to cover the cost of interest. Therefore, the expectation of future higher taxes will discourage private investment. Therefore, potency of expansionary fiscal policy in a recession is in question.

 Qn. 11

The Table below describes four possible situations that might arise in 2009, depending on the level of aggregate demand in this year.


Price level (2008=100

Real GDP (trillions of 2008 dollars)

Unemployment rate (percent labor force)

Inflation (calculated)


























Explanation: From the Phillips curve the inflation rate that corresponds to 6% unemployment is 1.93%.

  Qn. 12

The following data describes the economy of Antarctica in 2050:


Billions (Antarctica dollars)

Imports of goods and services


Exports of goods and services


Foreign investment in Antarctica


Antarctica's investment abroad




Explanation = the current Account Balance (CAB) = Exports-Imports=Net Exports (NX)

= $50-$150=-$100 billion Antarctica dollars

The Capital Account Balance = Foreign investment in Antarctica – Antarctica’s investment abroad

= $125billion-$55billion



c. Is the country experiencing a balance of payments crisis? Explain

The country is experiencing a balance of payment crisis. This is because the capital account balance cannot the current account balance by a positive margin. The country’s net interest payment is negative, i.e. $70 billion minus $100 billion is -$30 billion. The current account balance is in short of $30 billion to attain equilibrium.

Qn. 13: Foreign exchange market

a. Show graphically and explain the effect of an increase in US interest rates on the demand and supply of dollars. Indicate the resulting change in the exchange rate of Euros per U.S. dollars (appreciates, depreciates). 

Price level




                                                      AD1                              Real GDP

Explanation: An increase in interest rate decreases investment and consumption expenditure. In addition, it leads to a high U.S. exchange rate. For example, the U.S dollar appreciates, meaning that the dollar will gain against the Euro.  This is shown in the next graph. This decreases the U.S. net exports. The aggregate demand decreases, i.e. shifts to the left.

Exchange rate (Euros per dollar)




The developing countries have markets that are imperfect.  Due to a low interest rate in the U.S. production is stimulated. Countries in the developing world will increase their imports from the United States because of the low prices that they can pay for U.S. exports.  However, in order to remain competitive, producers in developing countries lower their prices. This will lead them to produce less, which affects the exchange rates, increasing the exchange rate of the developing country currency per unit of dollar.

Exchange rate (Developing Country currency per dollar)







  1. The current required reserve ratio is 0.1. It has not been changed for the last three years.
  2. The current discount rate is 0.75%. It has not changed for the last three years.
  3. Open market operations involve the purchase and sale of securities by the Federal Reserve.  The objective of this monetary tool is set by the Federal Open Market Committee.  It is used to adjust reserve balance supply, in order to keep the interest rate at the target established by the committee.
  4. Traditionally, the Federal Reserve has implemented monitory policy using open market operations as the primary tool. It has always involved the purchase and sale of the United States Treasury securities. Traditionally, the Federal Reserve has set an interest rate to seek to fulfill its statutory mandate of stable prices, maximum employment, and moderate long-term interest rates. However, recently, the approach has changed. The Federal response to the financial crisis utilized new approaches.  The Federal Reserve create additional methods of injecting reserves, liquidity, and credit into the financial system, as well as providing loans to institutions that are not banks. As conditions became normal, institutions that got loans during the recession period repaid them with interests. The response was satisfactory because it normalized institutions that would affect banks eventually.


  1. The data reflects the monetary base for January of every year between 2001 and 2013.


Adjusted Monetary Base



























  1. Graph
  1. Adjusted monetary base is the total sum of currency, including coins, in circulation outside the U.S Treasury and the Federal Reserve Bank. From the graph, it can be seen that the adjusted federal monetary base has been increasing over the years. Until 2008, the increase has been moderate, but afterwards there was a sharp annual increase in the adjusted monetary base.  Perhaps this reflects the financial crises that the country witnessed starting 2008. This indicates an increase in government spending over the last years.
Friday, 30 May 2014 11:44

Relevance of Higher Education

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Relevance of Higher Education

Higher education refers to education acquired at universities, colleges and institutes of technology. It also refers to education that is acquired at college-level institutions. Vocational school and career colleges are alternative examples of such types of institutions where students can receive higher education. Students acquire higher education after completing their secondary/high school educations. It is the desire for most high school students to join their dream college. Traditionally, children have been trained to believe that a good education equals to a good life in the future.

With this in mind, high school students worked hard to go to college. Traditionally, it was a guarantee that students who went to college had a better life than those who did not go to college. Unfortunately, such perceptions have begun to fail as more students being to perceive higher education as not so important. Higher education is essential to all students as it helps them create a platform that they can later use to determine their future life.


In the past, children were advised to read hard, excel in their studies and go to college. An entrance to college would mean that the student’s life would be bright as opportunities will be available. Unfortunately, today, the relevance of higher education continues to dwindle as students embrace the idea that higher education is indeed not necessary. Students are no longer motivated to join colleges and universities to further their studies. The success of college dropouts such as bill Gates (Microsoft), Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook), Steve Job (Apple Inc), Richard Branson (Virgin Airlines) and Gabe Newell (Valve Corporation) has further instilled in most students the desire to pursue their dreams without first seeking a college degree (Toby, 2012).

 The above mentioned billionaires are among hundreds of other successful businessmen that dropped out of prestigious universities such as Harvard to pursue their dream careers, and succeeded. Similarly, students argue that there are numerous famous celebrities and notable figures that have successes without a college education. Notables such as Abraham Lincoln and Henry Ford, as well as celebrities such as Will smith, Simon Conwell and Halle Berry, did not go to college, and they are very successful today (Allen, 2007).

The growing perception, among students that higher education is not compulsory is detrimental to a person’s well being, as well as the overall economy of the country.The famous celebrities, politicians and entrepreneurs that have become millionaires despite the lack of a college degree represent a small fraction of the millions of citizens who will need a college degree so as to excel in life. It is a fact that not everyone has the genius mind of establishing a business that can rise to become a multi-billion industry. Similarly, times have changes, and whereas it was easy to survive on odd job in the past, it is currently very difficult. Most of the billionaires who did not attend college began their career by doing odd jobs so as to survive (Schmidt, 2011).

Currently, the economic status of the country is harsh and with high rates of unemployment, accessing even the odd jobs would be difficult. Higher education is very important to a person undertaking it, as well as the society that he resides in.There are several strategies that can be adopted to mitigate the rise of such a dangerous mentality among children.  First, societies should embark on a public awareness effort to encourage high school students to study towards achieving college qualification and attending college. College undergraduates, at the community level, would be selected and paired with high school students from schools across the community. The undergraduate students would acts as mentors and coaches to the high school students. The undergraduates would also acts as advisors to high school students.

  The undergraduate would advice students on available course and the market viability of existing courses, selection and admission processes, as well as means of seeking financial assistance. Colleges should also provide accessible financial aid and work study options to students who are at risk of not attending college due to financial constraints. Most students from poor families are guaranteed education up to high school level. After high school, most never study any further due to lack of funds. It is time colleges, universities and vocational training institution provide students with financial assistance. Colleges must present students with scholarship and federal aid options. The presence of these options gives high school students adequate incentives to consider going to college.

In most instances, students that find college education irrelevant are pushed by factors such as financial constraints. The reality that college education will not be provided make such students accept the reality and believe that it is not necessary (Toby, 2012).. Lastly colleges and universities should revise their entry points so as to make the reality of joining college a reality. The high entrance point’s means that most students are turned away from their dream colleges universities and colleges can provide students with entry points that are lower than they currently stand. Similarly, states can construct more community colleges. Community colleges provide students who have not performed so well, with an alternative and affordable study option.

Higher education is Important

A diploma is now a standard prerequisite in most organizations. Employers now believe that higher education provides employees with not only professional education, but also essential social skills that can be utilized at the workplace. Higher education provides students with social skills as they get to interact with their peers. Similarly, the spirit of teamwork is further cemented in colleges as students undertake assignments in groups. Students who embrace higher education are able to interact and understand diverse cultures. The ability to interact with diverse cultures prepares students to the professional world where interaction with diverse cultures is unavoidable (Gora, 2013). In contrast, students who do not receive college/university education might learn the ropes of his job at the work place, but lack adequate social skills. The risk of narrow mindedness is high among employees who have not attended college/university.

This is because of the minimal level of exposure compared to students with college/university qualifications.Students who lack college/university qualification have minimal life and career opportunities compared to students who have college qualifications.  The risk with having a majority of the populace without college qualifications is that opportunities for career growth and life development may be available, but the populace lacks qualifications to fill those jobs. In college, students get to be exposed to different courses and units that they can specialize and use to acquire jobs. Unfortunately, for most high school graduates the only jobs available are menial jobs.

Similarly, the room for career advancement is minimal as the student cannot compete with his qualified colleagues. The ability of a college student to advance in his career also means that the college graduate has a higher chance of getting well paying jobs that the students who did not pursue his education beyond high school. According to the US census bureau a college graduate earns a minimum of $54000 annually compared to $ 30000 earned by an employee with a high school diploma. The disparity in salary occurs because of the diverse opportunities that the college graduate has over the high school diploma employee (Kissel, 2013) 

A majority of individuals with high school diplomas, as their highest level of academic qualifications, struggle in life compared to those with college qualifications. High school education enables a person to improve his overall life. This is because the person has a high chance of  not only getting a good job, but also has the means to access better healthcare services in times of illness. Similarly, a high income means that the person has access to better dietary nutrition, better health practices and greater economic stability and security. Overall, a person with a college diploma has a higher chance of achieving overall life satisfaction than a person with only a high school diploma.  

With only a high school diploma, it is likely that the person will struggle from the first day (Mangan, 2013). This is contrast to the person with college qualifications as his likelihood of getting a job soon after college is high. However, for a holder of a high school diploma, access to well paying jobs will be difficult.  The only option to success for most college dropouts and those with high school diplomas is to venture into business and entrepreneurship and hope that the business thrives to success.Most students who fail to go to college do so because of environmental influences. The most susceptible students are students form low income areas. These students are influenced to believe that education beyond high school is not mandatory.

The culture of hustling so as to survive is instilled, in such children when they are as young as ten years old. Unfortunately, the belief in such mentality results to increased desire to abandon school and hustle. Similarly, children who do not desire to attend school are often influenced by the fact that their friends, relatives or even parents did not attend college, but still made it in their lives. Some students are raised in families where no one has ever attended college. The motivation to study beyond college is, therefore, very low. Such students, however, need to realize that, despite the fact that no one in their family has ever attended college, they can set the pace for change. Students need not fit into family practices that are obsolete.

Whereas it was easy for parents to stop studying after high school and still lead a decent lifestyle, it is currently difficult to do so (Toby, 2012). Times have changed, and those with minimal levels of education are disadvantaged in society. Whereas it may not be easy to convince some parents and relatives why pursuing further education it important, it is vital to try and convince them of the need for college education so as to increase chances of leading better lives than they did. As seen in earlier discussions, education significantly improves a person’s life (Gora, 2013). Some high school students argue that they cannot attend college because they cannot fit. The element of fitting in, or not arises when students perceive themselves to be different from the rest.

Students from minority groups, for instance, may fear that their unique status may put them at a disadvantage to the rest of students. However, students should realize that the pursuit of education does not discriminate. In fact, college and universities comprise of leading places where cultures and people from diverse continents meet. It is impossible not to fit in, in college. Similarly, students should realize that colleges admit students in their thousands (Schmidt, 2011). A student from a minority group e.g. an African will be admitted among thousands of other students from other cultures.

Critics, however, argue that higher education is one of the American products that are highly overrated. They argue that performance in high school plays a crucial role in determining whether a student will excel in college or not. A student who may have been underperforming in high school will perform even worse when forced to go to college (Vaughan, 2005). The levels of education becomes complex as a student sores higher in the education scale.It is, therefore, likely that the student will pass through college with very weak scores, or worse a fail.

In the end, such a student will have wasted approximately four years of his life that he could have otherwise invested in a practical course that prepares him for careers that he is gifted in. the four years in college would be a waste because the students will have performed so dismally that the college certificate cannot be used for professional purposes such as education. Exceedingly poor performance in college has seen students drop out mid-studies having earned little or nothing at all from their college education. Unfortunately, such students who realize they are not meant for college/university education make this realization when it is too late. There are often left in debt, their self esteem destroyed, and their plans devastated by the realization that they have to start planning their future from scratch (Vaughan, 2005).

The perception that there are some people not suitable for college education is wrong. College education is suitable for all. The essential factor is to determine the ideal course to undertake. Even the brightest students risk failure if they select courses that they are not familiar with (Allen, 2007). Students should ensure that they select courses that tally with their interests, future career expectation, as well as their abilities. Similarly, other than the mainstream public universities, there are various community colleges that students with any result can enroll and study.


Higher education is mandatory to all students despite their social and economic status. Higher education is education that is pursued beyond high school. High school prepares students for further learning in universities and colleges. It is essential, therefore, that students complete their students to university levels.  University education provides students with social and professional benefits. Socially, students get to interact with other cultures where they learn to appreciate and co-exist with them. Professional academic education taught at universities prepares students with essential critical and logical skills needed for their preferred profession. There might be a few persons who excel without university education, but a majority others live in misery and are constantly faced with life’s hardships. 


Allen, H. (2007). Why is higher education important? Retrieved from http://www.crosswalk.com/family/homeschool/why-is-higher-education-important-1367463.html?ps=0

Gora, Joann M. in the Hoosier state, a cause for cautious optimism. Presidency 15.1 (2012): 36-40.

Kissel, Adam. Will Universities Rediscover Their Core Mission As They Shrink? Academic Questions 24.4 (2011): 429-437.

Mangan, K. Report Calls For Renewed Focus On College Completion. Chronicle of Higher Education 59.21 (2013): A9. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

Schmidt, Peter. "In Push for Diversity, Colleges Pay Attention to Socioeconomic Class." Chronicle of Higher Education 57.5 (2010): B5-B7.

Toby, J. (2012). The lowering of higher education in American. Transaction book

Vaughan, George B., and John MacDonald. "(Over) Selling the Community College: What Price Access? Chronicle of Higher Education 52.10 (2005): B12-B14.


Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:43

Ethical Considerations

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 Ethical Considerations

 In any kind of research, emphasis on the stipulated ethical standards is extremely crucial. This kind of emphasis helps in strengthening the validity of outcomes. When a research is characterized by low ethical standards, the level of validity is compromised significantly. This is also inherently associated with the reliability of results within the entire research framework. The other pertinent implication of ethical considerations is that they help in the mitigation of conflicts. The absence of ethical considerations can immensely contribute towards the emergence of conflicts in research. This analysis focuses on the different ethical considerations in the research framework of medical billing fraud.

 Ethical Concerns for Researcher Positionality

There are various issues of ethical concern that are directly associated with the researcher’s posionality. Firstly, there is the ethical issue of potential bias within the framework of data collection. Bias undermines the efficiency attained within the entire research, and this can also hamper the levels of reliability. Apart from bias, manipulation of information or data is another perspective of ethical concern (Boyle, 2011). When data is manipulated in any way, the ethical standards of the entire research are immensely undermined. This aspect underlines the extensive significance of preventing any kind of manipulation in the research.


In research involving human subjects, coercion is one of the most critical issues of ethical concern. Coercion occurs when the different participants are forced to give information within the data collection phase of the research. This is an action that is tantamount to the violation of the fundamental tenets of ethics in research. The issue of medical billing fraud involves extensive involvement of human beings at different stages of data collection. For instance, some participants will take part in filling interviews or questionnaires (Boyle, 2011). Such participants must not be coerced into giving certain information or taking a given path while responding. During this research, the prevention of coercion will be massively essential towards bolstering credibility and reliability.


Apart from coercion, anonymity is another critical aspect of ethical importance within the research framework. In essence, this involves the protection of identity of the different participants. While evaluating organizational trends in medical billing fraud, anonymity is massively essential. It will help in terms of ensuring that the participants who provide essential information are not victimized by colleagues or organizational leaders. The violation of this ethical stipulation can easily expose the participants to numerous perils and hence compromise the quality of research.


As a pertinent aspect of ethical consideration in research, confidentiality is inherently connected to anonymity. This ethical consideration will be massively vital in terms of boosting the privacy of databases for the research. Information on medical billing fraud in an organization must be treated with the highest standards of confidentiality (Boyle, 2011). This aspect of ethical consideration is also immensely crucial because it enhances the privacy of details related to the participants’ identity. The disclosure of the identity of participants would be tantamount to the violation of the basic tenets of medical research.


 The framework of ethical consideration is also characterized by an analysis of privacy standards. Privacy is directly associated with the details or crucial records of participants. Based on the basic tenets of privacy, there should be no public disclosures on the names or details of participants. While evaluating the issue of medical billing fraud, disclosures of the participants’ identity will be averted. In view of such an approach, the highest standards of ethical research will be maintained.

 Informed Consent

As an aspect of ethical concern in the evaluation of medical billing fraud, informed consent facilitates for the alleviation of coercion. The involvement of employees must be done strictly on voluntary basis. When the principle of informed consent is not used in dealing with research participants, reliability is undermined immensely. On the other hand, the standard of research validity is greatly bolstered when informed consent is used continuously during the different stages. In essence, informed consent is an excellent platform that ensures that no participant is forced to provide information about different aspects of the research.

 Role of IRB in the Research

Approval from the IRB is immensely crucial in this research. The research cannot be started if the IRB has not approved it. In addition to approval, there are various roles that will be played by the IRB in this research. This board will evaluate the validity of the different strategies that have been developed for the attainment of the stipulated standards of ethics (Boyle, 2011). Additionally, the review board can also help in terms of providing feedback on the different areas that need improvement in the analytical framework of the research.


This analysis puts the different ethical considerations of research into perspective. There is the ethical issue of potential bias within the framework of data collection. Bias undermines the efficiency attained within the entire research, and this can also hamper the levels of reliability. The issue of medical billing fraud involves extensive involvement of human beings at different stages of data collection.


Boyle, P. (2011). Medical ethics, Georgetown: Georgetown University Press


Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:41

Insider vs. Outsider Action Research

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Insider vs. Outsider Action Research


Insider and outsider action research is associated with various differences. While insider action research is conducted by an individual within his or her own organization, the former action research is performed by an external party. In most cases, the external party in outsider action research has minimal familiarity with the internal environment in which he or she is evaluating (Craig, 2008). In contrast, the researcher in insider action research is excellently familiar with the internal environment and operational systems in the area of focus. The most notable advantage of outsider action research is that it is associated with minimal bias. On its part, insider action research enhances the standards of accuracy within the framework of data collection.

 Insider Action Research for Medical Billing Fraud

For my proposal on medical billing fraud, I will use insider action research. Based on this kind of research, I will have an excellent chance to align the entire research program to the identified area of focus. As an insider, familiarity with the internal organizational systems will be vital towards collecting accurate data. In any research framework, the accuracy of data collection is a vital element that influences the quality of findings. This will be strongly enhanced by the use of the insider action research method.

Apart from accuracy in data collection, this method will be vital in terms of enhancing the reliability of findings (Craig, 2008). This is a vital attribute in any research because it is also associated with excellent standards of validity. The use of outsider action research might hinder the project’s outcome because of inadequate understanding of the line of focus. This can also undermine the validity of findings.


Craig, D. V. (2009). Action research essentials, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons


Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:38

Role of Action Research

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Role of Action Research

Action research is an essential investigative tool that helps in addressing a given problem or improving a targeted area. This kind of research is conducted by the main beneficiaries of the findings. At the organizational level, the role of action research is extensive. From the perspective of organizational development, action research facilitates for effectiveness in the implementation of change. This kind of research has excellent platforms from which change can be implemented within an organization. For instance, organizational leaders can use action research to determine the most effective platforms of communication. This promotes organizational development.

The role of action research in organizational development can also be evaluated on the basis of alignment to organizational challenges. This type of research is immensely crucial in the development of solutions for specific problems. This is a vital aspect of organizational performance and is strongly aligned to the framework of organizational development. It is also fundamentally pertinent to highlight action research as a vital component in the enhancement of organizational learning (Brannick, 2009).The efficiency of organizational operations is inherently dependent on the availability of reliable information on the different organizational systems.

For instance, the human resource manager might be interested in determining the various factors affecting the performance of staff members.  This information can be obtained through an action research framework that is specifically aligned to the desired area of focus. Based on such an aspect, action research is a vital component of learning in any organization. In modern organizational settings, action research is considered as an essential tool that is more or less indispensable from the perspective of development and learning.


Brannick, T. (2009).Doing action research, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE


Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:34

Insurance in Wisconsin

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Insurance in Wisconsin

Insurance is predominantly regulated by states. This essay provides an overview of the duties of Wisconsin’s Office of the Commissioner of Insurance (OCI) in addressing major types of insurance and the insurance funds offered by the state of Wisconsin. The McCarran Ferguson Act (1945) defines the roles of the federal and state government in regulating insurance. The act allows states to have regulatory authority over insurance matters.

  Role of Office of the Commissioner of Insurance (OCI)

The Office of the Commissioner of Insurance (OCI) is a body that was established in 1871 via a legislation process. OCI has great owners in ensuring that the insurance injury meets the citizen’s needs living in Wisconsin. Some of the major tasks of OCI include; reviewing the proposed insurance policies available for sale in Wisconsin so as to determine if these policies meet the Wisconsin laws requirements. OCI is responsible for monitoring licensed companies and other applicant companies so as to determine their status.

The office is also responsible for conducting financial examinations of foreign and domestic insurers so as to determine if they comply with Wisconsin laws. It implements, creates and enforces laws that cover agents, companies and brokers. OCI analyzes and examines rates filed by insurance companies so as to evaluate whether they are unfairly discriminatory, inadequate and excessive. The office has the task of providing information to consumers in Wisconsin and processes and investigates the complaints filed by consumers. The office also deals with processing and investigating administrative actions filed against insurers and agents who have violated the insurance laws of Wisconsin (OCI, 2013).

  Types of insurance coverage in Wisconsin

The statutory provisions of Wisconsin dealing with insurances and the duties and powers of OCI are stated in chapter 600 to 655. The administrative rules of OCI are states in chapter 1 to 555 of Wisconsin Administration Code. The rules and statutes apply to various types of insurance. Some of the insurances types are discussed below; Auto insurance is a must insurance cover for all drivers in Wisconsin. The policy has specific minimum limits for personal injury, damage liability and injury caused by motorists who is insured. Charges for personal injury are $50,000 per incident and $25,000 per person.

The uninsured is $50, 000 per incident and $25, 000 per person for body injury. Property damage is $10,000 2011-12) Legislative Session, 2011). These are the minimum coverage costs that are renewed on a yearly basis. The cost applies to policies issued. Commercial liability insurance is another type of cover. Businesses in Wisconsin can protect their property against losses through the commercial liability insurance by claiming for compensation from an insurance company. The worker’s compensation insurance is a commercial liability insurance that is required by all businesses in Wisconsin. This subtype insures against work related death and injury, and it is basically a remedy for employees in these cases.

Credit insurance is a cover meant to protect a person obtaining a credit card and loan at the time of credit transaction. The insurance pays a portion or all of the credit balance that is outstanding when a claim is filed. This is based on any case that is outlined within the policy such as unemployment, disability and death of the obligor. Credit insurance unlike other types of insurance covers is more expensive, and they have a strict policy limitation (Wisconsin legislation, 2011).Crop insurance covers farmers in cased of damage of crops and other aspects that lead to crop loss.

A private insurance company and the Federal Crop Insurance Corporations do cover for crop insurance. Another type of insurance cover in Wisconsin is the disability income insurance. The cover replaces a portion of an employee’s income for a given period of the event when an employee is not an employee suffering from illness or injury. The flood insurance covers damages and losses of property caused by flood. Floods can cause household mechanical damages and damage of structures and also high cost of cleaning. The local insurance agents in Wisconsin do administer the National Flood Insurance program.

There are the home owners insurances that compensate a client in cases of belongings and house losses. When buying a home, it is essential to insure the house based on its market value and replacement costs. The insurance cover also compensates for other special riders like antiques, jewelry, firearms, and other vital personal property. Homeowner insurances also cover cases of negligence for damages of insured property and protection of somebody in cases of injury (The Legislative Audit Bureau, 2009).Life insurance has the benefit in cases where a form of annuity and cash payments is compensated to the beneficiaries when the insured dies.

Life insurance can be purchased separately or provided by an employer. Life insurance can be the cash value insurance also known as whole life or term insurance. Premiums for term insurance are lower than the cash value. Long term care insurance does deal with the provision of medical services and other services needed for an extended disability or illness. This policy ca n covers a wide range of care levels which are covered with Medicare. Last are the segregated insurance Funds. Wisconsin has the Local Government Property Insurance Fund and the Sate LIFE Insurance Fund stipulated under chapter 605 and 607 (National Association of Insurance Commissioners, 2011). OCI administers these funds.

The sole custody of the fund’s assets is under the State Treasurer. The local government property insurance fund has the purpose of negotiating reasonable prices for property insurance that are available for local government properties under tax support. Such properties include libraries, schools, government building, and motor vehicles. The fund claim service and provides policy to the policy holders. The State Life Insurance Fund provides life insurance cover of a maximum amount of $10,000 to all the state residents of Wisconsin who have purchased a policy from the state Life insurance fund. The fund distributes to the net profits every year among the policy holders. Wisconsin is the only state that provides its states with a life insurance program or plan (NAIC, 2013).


Legislative Audit Bureau (2013) Wisconsin state insurance programs. Retrieved from


On November 29, 2013

Legislative Session (2012) Legislature changes to Wisconsin law automobile insurance contracts


On November 29th 2013

OCI publications (2013) general outline of Wisconsin insurance law. Retrieved from


On November 29, 2013

The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) (2013) insurance industry generally and insurance practices. Retrieved from


On November 29, 2013

NAIC (2013) Consumer Information Source. Retrieved from



On November 29, 2013

Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:28

Qualitative Studies

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Qualitative Studies

            There are three types of output that are generated from qualitative studies, and they are taxonomy, themes, and theory. Study shows that these outputs are useful in a number of ways such as revealing of insights into how the context of an event, generation of hypotheses about causal links among access, cost and quality services, and the fostering of improved measurement of multifaceted interventions. Taxonomy is defined as a system for classifying multifaceted complex situations in respect to the common conceptual dimensions and domains. In the field of health care services research, researchers always evaluate multifaceted interventions that are implemented in the real world and not in the controlled conditions.

Examples that are used in taxonomy concept are the quality improvement efforts in the hospital setting, goal setting for older adults with dementia, integrated health systems, and systems for health maintenance organizations.Themes are said to be the general propositions that emerge from detail rich experiences and diverse concepts of participants and the do provide recurrent and unifying concepts based on the subject of inquiry. It has been discovered that themes evolve not only from the angle of conceptual sub-codes and codes like in the taxonomy concept but from the codes relationships, and the link data has to be present.

Theory in qualitative studies helps to emphasize the nature of causal relationships and correlative relationships which delves into the systematic reasons for the phenomena of inquiry, experiences, and events. It has been discovered that theory explains and predicts phenomena. Researchers in qualitative studies should be aware that a comprehensive concept of theory always integrates data tagged with conceptual sub-codes and codes.


Bradley, E. H., Curry, L. A., & Devers, K. J. (2007). Qualitative Data Analysis for Health Services Research: Developing Taxonomy, Themes, and Theory. Health Services Research42(4), 1758-1772. Doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00684.x


Saturday, 24 May 2014 14:04

Action Research

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Action Research

Action research is a type of research that allows healthcare practitioners to investigate and analyze their work. Healthcare practitioners use action research to establish new knowledge related to healthcare practice.  Action research principles build on the capacity of healthcare practitioners thinking and working together to resolve a health care problem. This healthcare problem is resolved through information sharing, as well as sharing of skills and resources. It is inventing new knowledge that practitioners can improve their practice and service delivery (Vallenga, 2009).

Action research plays numerous roles in healthcare practice. First it increases the impact of those involved in the researcher i.e. researchers and practitioners. This is possible as the action research makes use of knowledge that already exists and in practice. Action practice also helps healthcare professionals to identify problems in their own areas of healthcare practice. It is by identifying these problems that effective corrective strategies can be implemented so as to improve the situation, in question.  Individual healthcare practitioners with identical concerns form research groups with the intention of improving healthcare practice.

 Action research also serves an educative role as it exposes healthcare practitioners to new knowledge and theories that they can implement in healthcare practice. Action research also help practitioners determine the conditions under which practical actions can be conducted within the healthcare environment. Action research also serves the role of initiating change in selected healthcare practices. There are numerous problems that healthcare practitioners face and through action research they are able to establish effective strategies to resolve these problems. The healthcare problems are resolved in the interest of research-based practice and professionalism. Changes can be initiated with the purpose of service improvement.


Vallenga, D. et. al. (2009). Action research: what, why and how. Acta Neurologica. Belgica.  Vol. 109, 81-90


Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:33

Culture Shock among International Students

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Culture Shock among International Students

It is common for international students to experience culture shock during the initial periods of their stay in foreign countries. This is generally negative emotions associated with anxiety, insecurity and disorientation, usually brought about by unfamiliar environment. Various ideas have been generating concerning how to manage culture shock. However, these traditional ideas have their limitation. This paper proposes a creative solution to solving the culture shock problem that entails keeping an open mind and living each day at a time. Culture shock is usually brought about by several factors.

One of these factors is the absence of values, practices, norms and behaviors that a person was used in the home countries. Different countries have different cultural settings. Therefore, people in different countries are bound to have differences in values, norms and behaviors. A person is likely to experiences culture shock when the culture of the destination country differs significantly from the culture of the home country. This is mainly because the student will try to compare home practices and practices with the destination country thus amplifying the differences.

Having an open mind is the best approach of minimizing culture shock. Keeping an open mind will enable the student to accept and appreciate everything he encounters in the destination country (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010). It will enable the student to appreciate new experiences without passing judgment about these experiences. Keeping an open mind will enable the student to become an objective observer rather than interpret the new experiences using the values of the home country. Keeping an open mind will also enable the student to understand the local people and their behaviors (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010).

The student will be in a position to understand and appreciate the local culture when they remain objective.   Another factor that leads to culture shock is anticipation. Marx (2001), in her book Breaking through Culture Shock, proposed that students should try to anticipation local culture as a strategy for minimizing culture shock. However, anticipation can be a significant cause of culture shock. This is because, in most cases, students get experiences that are different from what they had anticipated once they arrive in the destination country.

This is mainly as a result of basing their anticipation on inaccurate information and stereotypes. Inconsistencies between what the students had prepared to experience and their actually experiences become a significant source of anxiety and discomfort.This paper recommends that instead of anticipating local cultures students should go to their destination country and live each day at a time. They should discover new experiences offered by the destination country as these experiences take place. Going into a foreign country with an open mind will minimize expectations, therefore, avoiding disappointments when expectations are met (Maddux, Adam & Galinsky, 2010).

Having an open mind will also enable the student to appreciate the new environment.Proponents of traditions solutions may disapprove this creative solution by arguing that keeping an open mind will discourage students from preparing themselves for the new life and experiences. However, this is contrary to what is advocated in this proposed solution. This paper does not suggest that students should not find information about the destination country. It is important to explore basic information such as weather, cost of living, security information and others.

However, this solution discourages students from attempting to anticipate destination cultures and experiences since this leads to the creation of inaccurate and unrealistic expectations. This leads to disappointment when these expectations are not met.In conclusion, culture shock is a common problem among international students. Many students experience anxiety, disorientation and insecurity when they go to unfamiliar environments. Traditional sources recommend solutions such as attempting to anticipate destination culture. However, this paper proposes that the best strategy for dealing with culture shock is to keep an open mind and live each day at a time.


Maddux, W. Adam H. & Galinsky, A. (2010). When in Rome, Learn Why Romans do what they Do. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 36 (6): 731- 741

Marx, E. (2001). Breaking through Culture Shock. USA. Nicholas Brealey Publishing


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