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Literature and Languages

Literature and Languages (92)

Friday, 30 May 2014 15:36

Shakespeare's Othello

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Shakespeare's Othello

Dramatic irony presented by Iago in Othello

Theater arts gain its dramatic aspect from the power of persuading an audience of the reality of a play through the use of primary speech given about a given circumstance. Shakespeare is well known for his ability to use speech in conveying a hidden means and gain advantage in passing the message of his world. He is a playwright who well understood the power of words. In his play Othello, Shakespeare uses the character Iago in passing his manipulative and mastery use of speech as a force that is greatly influential and propels the play forward. This essay presents how words spoken by Iago play a diverse and divisive role in the play. This is because of the inner deep hatred and homoerotic attraction that Iago has towards Othello.

 Dramatic irony through Iago’s speech

Iago plays a significant role in the play Othello by Shakespeare. He acts as an instrument towards the downfall of Othello. His speech has more than one meaning, thus playing a central role that drives the play’s actions. His motives are not clear, and one cannot easily categorize them. He faces a mixture of vice-like interests and sensibilities in light of his view of the suffering of people.Iago has a deep desire to revenge, and this can be seen from the opening scene of the play. Iago, unlike Cassio, is a common soldier and battle tested while Cassio is presented by Shakespeare as being a gentleman with less experience. Iago is described an s a person who “……of his eyes had seen the prove at Cyprus and Rhodes and on other grounds heathen and Christened.” (1.1.27-29).

The resentment that Iago has been shown in the first scene, and he fears that Othello made love to his wife Emilia. “I do not suspect the lusty Moor hath lept into my seat, the thought whereof, act likes a poisonous substance that gnaws one inside (2.1.282-84). This shows the deep hatred that Iago has towards Othello and the ways he says this is one ranging from mocking to loathing. He is accusing Othello of having slept with his wife, and he repeats this accusation later in the play. This accusation has no proof, but Iago is driven, by the rage, to revenge. Through his speeches, we learn that Iago is a person who holds grudges for a long time. He is help up by time and takes a long time to plan for revenge.

Suspicion and revenge are not the only motivators for Iago. He enjoys the game of running Othello’s life. Iago takes the version of an evil character that is close with other characters and has a comic capability of piloting the final downfall of his antagonist, Othello. This can be evidenced, in Iago’s skill, in a speech that enables him to persuade other characters. He convinces Othello that his wife is cheating and is unfaithful to him even without any proof to show this claim. Iago is so persuasive to a point that Othello believes this to be true and is held up in a trance of jealousy. Seeing this, Iago congratulates his ability by saying, “my medicine work, and work on, work!

This is how the credulous fools are caught, and many chaste and worthy dames even thus, guiltless meet approach” (IV. i. 54-57).We also see Iago convincing Cassio to drink for being appointed as a lieutenant. He also convinces Roderigo to attempt the murder of Cassio and finally convincing Othello to kill his wife because of her unfaithfulness. This way it becomes clear that Iago is in a mission of seeking revenge. However, his hidden motives are unexplainable when looking the surface meaning of the play. His main reason for hating Othello is not due to Othello’s choosing Cassio as the lieutenant, but because Othello does not listen to him and the advocates sent by Iago.

For Othello, he does not see the importance of Iago, and he does not recognize is worthiness and importance. This is the main reason as to why Iago get offended. However, this is not to rule out the fact of being overlooked for a job that he has had many years of experience as a soldier. “I have often informed thee and always tell you again and again... sI hate that Moor. My cause towards him is heartened to be of no reason, so, lets us revenge against Othello” (I.iii.373). Based on this hatred Iago accompanies Othello to Cyprus and his intention is to destroy the life and reputation of Othello Desdemona and Cassio.

Shakespeare mainly depends on dramatic irony in the play by constantly refereeing to Iago as the “honest Iago”. This emphasizes on Othello’s’ vulnerability and other characters like Cassio and Desdemona for respecting and trusting Iago. In various occasions, Iago refers to himself as a devil. He says, “ you are among those people who will not serve God if you are bound by the devil” and “ when devils have put on the blackest sin they will display themselves with heavenly actions, just the way as I do” (2.3.325-27). The way Iago chooses his words in defining himself as a devil illustrates his hidden evil intentions that other characters are not aware.

He acts as a good person, but his jealousy and resentment is clear through his words. Iago is part of this psychological drama in the way he projects himself towards Othello. He uses speech as a clever technique to active power over the minds of others.The villain motivation is not simply displayed by Iago. His actions also hint to his inner homosexual character in the way he describes Cassio’s dream. He says, “Then he laid his leg on my thigh, and sighed and kissed (3.3.435-26). Also, the scene where Iago convinces Othello that that his wife is not true to him, this signifies seduction. We question why Iago has to give all these revelation to Othello if he is not in love with him


Shakespeare uses the Character Iago to represent a person wrapped in his own feelings and thoughts. Though the aspect of psychology has improved today, people in the 1600s suffering from severe psychological conditions ware not treated and restricted to roam in the society. Iago is not a person suffering from a psychological disorder, but his imagination drives him crazy and guides him in his misguided mentality. Iago displays hatred towards Othello and calls him a Moore because of his dark skin color. This play shows aspects such as social inequality, family and workplace dynamics and gender inequality. The plays presents the discrimination that existed in Shakespeare’s time resulting from color, and gender needs that existed in early years of education.


Shakespeare, W (1996) Othello In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University Http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/othello_all.html

Friday, 30 May 2014 15:34

Article Critique

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Article Critique

This is an article that discusses the life safety measures through focusing on fire prevention, fire inspections, public education, and the safety of the firefighter. According to this article, the fire departments were developed so that to protect people by first offering prevention efforts. There are many fire departments which are not responsible of the fire code enforcement; therefore, the inspections are normally performed by other bureau of the fire department.  


Fire fighters are supposed to ensure that they are aware of the buildings in their area. Doing building checkups is important and never difficult because the business owners will never stop the inspector from looking around. In every aspect of fire prevention, sharing of information is a very essential component in survival and safety. This article relates very well with what I have been learning during my course as I have learned that information is normally valuable when it has been shared and acknowledged. When doing inspection, it is necessary to share the information obtained with other people concerned so that they can be aware of your target hazards and you are also aware of theirs (Kanterman, 2011). Doing inspections and pre fire planning are necessary as they are done ahead of time and they will be very critical in saving life.

According to the article, the main cause of fire includes apathy, indifference, ignorance, and extravagance. Fire may occur as a result of fire as people are not interested in the problem of fire. During the course, I learned that many people are very much concerned with their security than fire and tend to have the belief that they are likely to be victims of crime before being victims of fire. When observing most of the houses, more door locks can be seen than fire detectors. Many people are very ignorant about the issues presented regarding fire and others live an extravagant life where people have the perception that since one has insurance, it will help in paying anything that is lost (Kanterman, 2011). The ignorance that I portrayed by people regarding fire is because of lack of public education. The fire fighting department is supposed to provide people with information about what to do in case a fire starts.

 Point of view 

I believe that the public education need to target the middle age Americans because they are less informed about how to behave when a fire situation arises. Dialing 911 is the best way that people know on how to react when fire starts, but at times it might be too late; hence, people should be informed of how they can help themselves.  From my opinion about fire prevention, I believe that the most important thing that people should do is to learn to adhere to the safety measures that have been put in place so that we can ensure the safety.

In conclusion, carrying out fire inspection, public fire safety education, and code enforcement are important strategies that should be done as they have an impact on the safety of the victims and also the firefighter. These are strategies that need to be implemented so that we can ensure the safety of people and also be able to save most of our items because there are certain items that cannot be saved by insurance such as pictures, personal documents, and even mementos.


Kanterman, R (2011). Fire prevention, public education, and firefighter safety Fire engineering


Title: Gender role in literature: A comparison between The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (Thurber) The Necklace (de Maupassant)

The representation of women in literature has greatly evolved from the Victorian time to modern writing.  The evolution of woman in literature can be classified into three main evolution periods that include the feminine, feminist and the female age. The feminine period represent a period in history from around 1840s to 1880s which was characterized by the use of male pseudonym. The feminist period began after 1800 to around 1920s while the female period persists up to date.  

The modernist error represents women as an independent being, able to do different things or to compete with men. Gender roles in matrimony are the tasks and activities performed by male and female partners. The society predominantly defines these roles. For centuries, these roles have remained intact. Conventional, the role of women, even in developed countries, were predefined. Men were expected to shoulder responsibilities of feeding and maintaining the household while women responsibility regarded child care and marinating the house. In traditional American society, men were typified as powerful, assertive, autonomous, aggressive and controlling (Benthin, 2009).

 Early literature presented women as housewives whose role was to stay at home, take of the family and children and remain inferior to men. However, the story “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty by Thurber represents a break from this representation of women. Thurber presents a strong, domineering woman. Contrary, Maupassant in his story “The Necklace” represents a woman in bondage. “The Necklace” is one of the most famous short stories by Maupassant. It tells the story of a disgruntled middle-class lady whose dreams of wealth and glamour ends in disaster. Mathidle, the main character of the story are 19th century typical French desperate housewife. Because she is a woman in a man’s world, she has almost no control over her life.

She finds herself married to a husband she does not care for, cooped up in a house she despises. Her desires are to be desirable to other men. However, she is frustrated because in spite of possessing all the “womanly” virtues such as she is charming, graceful and beautiful; she does not succeed to get men’s attention.  The woman is in a loveless marriage and has to toil all day to repay a necklace.  However, the two stories use marriage to construct the role of gender in the society. Often, women are depicted doing house chores, cooking, playing with Dolls and performing other “feminist” activities. Men is depicted as masculine, sporty and stronger than women.   

 Gender role in marriage

James Thurber is regarded as one of the greatest humorists in the America literary. “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” is one of the best ever known stories. The main character of the story is a middle-aged man (Witty) who escapes from the routine drudgery of his suburban life into the world of fantasies of heroic conquest. Guy de Maupassant’s “The Necklace” is a story of a young woman, Mathilde, who desires dreadfully to be accepted into a high society. The story rotates on a necklace that Mathidle borrowed to impress in party. However, the necklace got lost, and she and her husband have to toil ten years to repay the lost necklace. The popularity of “Walter Mitty” fantasies resulted to the coining of the term “Walter Mitty type” to describe persons with particular neurotic and daydreaming characteristics.  

The representation of gender role is a break from the tradition where women are characterized as women, sexist and dominated by men. The story portrays a marriage in which the wife is domineering, controlling, and bossy while the husband, Walter Mitty is passive, submissive, and his wife’s control.  However, it can also be noted that Thurber portrays Mrs. Mitty as sexist. He portrays a unique marriage, which is controlled by a bossy wife. Mrs. Witty is depicted as aggressive, patronizing and arrogant. The story clearly presents a unique gender role reversal considering that Mrs. Witty is given the “expected” traits of Mr. Witty.  On the other hand, “the Necklace” presents a feminine woman.

 Maupassant gives the woman character conventional traits that are desirable to men.  Her desire was to be liked, envied, sought and seduced. She is in an unhappy marriage. Her husband is a middle class clerk.  She lives in a world dominated by men who control various aspects of her life.  Maupassant successfully depicts Mathidle emotional and sensitive, characteristics also characterized by feminist writers. The contrast in emotion is evident when Mathidle receives the news of her invitation to the big occasion. The author depicts a happy, jubilant lady who is eager to attend the occasion. However, when the husband hands her the invitation, she slams it to the door. Methidle reacts by sobbing bitterly.

She claimed that she did not have a nice dress to attend the party. She was agitated. This scene can be interpreted to indicate how female characters use emotion exploitation to solicit favors from men.  In the third scene of the story, Mathidle experiences the horrible life of the needy after incurring debts to repay the lost necklace. She dismisses her maid, and she and her husband are forced to rent a garret under eaves. She learns to clean, cook and do laundry. The emphasis given to these house chores undermines the role of woman in marriage. The woman is reduced to doing kitchen staff and laundry, which traditionally were used to define a typical obedient woman (Suzanne & Kroll, 2002).

 The secret life of Walter Mitty is a classical case where the societal expectations regarding gender roles are reversed. The society expects Mitty to be powerful, autonomous and self-determined. His wife, Mrs. Mitty, is expected to be submissive, and dedicated to taking care of her family. The existence of Mitty is presented as boring and controlled. It is only in his daydreaming and fantasies he achieve the typical traits of a “man.” He constantly imagines himself as a doctor, navy pilot commander, sharpshooter and a noble victim of a firing squad.

 The gender role of women has gradually transformed over time from the traditional perspective. Women are attaining more freedom and independence (West, 2007). However, gender discrimination still exists, and it is currently considered as a pertinent issue that requires the intervention of the society.  In the Victorian era, a woman was expected to be at home. Marriage was the expected career of a woman. Women were expected to be helpless and weak and incapable of solving problems, leave alone making sound decisions. Maupassant seems to represent this Victorian woman in the story “The necklace.” Methidle is completely dependent on her husband, and her chores are reduced to taking of the family.

The failures of Mr. Witty and his successes in the dreams are connected to gender role. The life of Witty is characterized by daily ridicule by women.  A good example is the women who hear Witty mumbling “puppy biscuit” on the street and his wife who is constantly nagging him.  Mitty is emotional separated from his wife completely, and it is as if they are thousands of miles apart. The emotional separation is emphasized by the desire to escape, for his wife is depicted as a pure harridan (Fisher & Silber, 2010).  His wife is depicted as a female protagonist who disobeys the “expected’ norm of the society.  In the story, the female character attempts to secure a relatively autonomous sense of self.

However, these desires are prolonged disengagement that is never fully achieved, is characteristically wrenching, and leaves a residue of guilt, a sense of failed responsibility, and even a sense of self-betrayal that cannot be finally overcome. Among women, Witty is depicted as subservient and an object of derision.  Walter fails to meet the traditional characteristics of masculine man. He is embarrassed by the inability to fix his car, when he attempts to replace tires he ends up winding the entire tires with chain and he had to seek assistance.  A “young” and “grinning” mechanic comes to tow his truck.  The description of the young mechanic implies that, the young and virile mechanic was laughing at the ignorance of Witty. This makes Witty feel emasculated.  

He resolves to take the car to a shop next time to have chains removed.  Often, Witty compensates his “inadequacies” or inabilities to meet convention expectations of masculinity in his daydreams.  The subject of his daydreams rotates around traditional expectation of masculine prowess. For example, he can comfortably hit a target that is three hundred feet away, he fixes sophisticated machinery with a common fountain pen, and he can walk bravely into war in his fantasy world. Thurber’s representation of gender may be suggesting that males in contemporary society are being weak and ineffectual while women are becoming increasingly aggressive.

On the other hand, Thurber may be suggesting that men are constantly lacking opportunities to perform meaningful, heroic actions, due to the economic constraints. Maupassant describes the female character with the word “she”. The word is used repeatedly in the beginning of the story to describe her, until the mention of her husband when she is referred as Mathidle. The use of the distant single pronoun with past verbs and failing to mention or refer the name or title gives an overwhelming meaning of paragraph. The paragraph indicates a lack of “identity” (Ahmad & Al-Makhzoumi, 2006).  This indicates the dominant role men play in giving women identity. At the end of the story, mathidle is referred as “madame Liosel.”

The title signifies her role in the marriage which is as a result of the new found identity after marriage.  In addition, Mathidle lost her name and assumed the name of her husband. This represents the patriarchy theory in which the man is the head of the family.  The character of Mathidle represents the status quo of traditional characterization of women. Her husband has to work for long hours so as to meet the needs of the family while the wife stayed at home.  Unlike Mitty who ends up heroic after years of fantasies, Mathidle does not achieve her desires. This signifies the will and determination of men as Mitty did not give up on all the ridicule, but pushed(Tao, Biaqiang, 2008).Scholar critics disagree on Thurber’s portrayal of women.

Blair and hill consider Thurber as a misogynist; she hates women.  They argue that Thurber view Mrs. Mitty as the one responsible for Mitty’s loss of independence and his incapacity to function. They believe that Thurber is opposed to strong, empowered and strong-willed women.  However, other critics such as Tobias, praises Thurber’s assertive female character.The historical context of the two stories reinforces their theme of gender role in marriage.  “The Necklace” was written in 1884 after the enactment of the Married Woman’s Property Act. Women were not allowed to own property until the late 19th century. Therefore, the story was written during an era when women had a great desire to break away from the societal bondage that often regarded them as inferior.

This period was characterized by numerous women activists fighting for women’s independence and autonomy (Sudha, 2000).  Mauppassant presents Mathdile as feminine character whose values are gauged in terms of her beauty. The secret life of Walter Milly was written shortly before the second war II (1939). This period was characterized by women’s independence, empowerment and autonomy.  The United States and other western countries were experiencing massive reformations, which enabled women to acquire formal education and take up competitive jobs.  The wife of Mitty presents such an empowered woman who is autonomous and independent. She is a perfect epitome of a reformed woman who has a rightful place in society.


The two stories represent different and contrast gender roles. “The Necklace” is a perfect example of sexism and oppression of women. Right from losing her right to choose her husband to all her efforts to please men, Mathdile represents a woman who is dominated by men.  In the entire story, the husband is the entire making decisions; he conceived the idea of lying to the owner of the necklace after it got lost, and the idea of borrowing money to repay the necklace was his.  

Power is held in public and domestic life, which depicts a picture of obedient and repressed women. Male chauvinism and pride dominate the story.   “The secret life of Walter Mitty” presents a reformed woman who defies the traditional perceptions of a woman. She is aggressive, controlling and empowered.  Walter, on the other hand, is depicted as a weak man, who is dominated by women, and uses fantasies to escape this reality. These stories reflect the evolution of gender role not only in literature, but also in society.


Ahmed & Al-Makhzoumi, (2006). The role of micro and macro elements in understanding a text: An analytical study of G. De Maupassant.  Najah University Journal. Vol. 20 (2),

Benthin, A. (2009). Redefining Gender Roles: The Image of Women in Virginia Woolf’s ‘To the Lighthouse’. GRIN Verlag

Fisher J. & Silber E (1998). Analyzing the different voices. Feminist psychological theory and literary texts.  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Maryland, USA.

Kaufman (1994). “Things close in”: dissolution and misanthropy in “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty.” Studies in American fiction.

Sudha, D. (2000). Gender roles. New Delhi: APH Publishing

Suzanne I & Kroll J (2002). The classic readers theatre for young adults. The teacher Idea Press. New York, USA.

Tao, Biaqiang (2008). Identifying and Combating Sexism in EFL Textbook. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502011.pd on 21/11/2013.

West, R. (2007). Marriage, sexuality and gender. Paradigm Publishers


Use of symbols and imagery in the Macbeth by William Shakespeare

 The writing of the Macbeth tragedy by William Shakespeare is usually dated to 1606, and scholarly opinion finds that the play appears to have been consciously written to appeal the political views of King James of Scotland, who had just succeeded Elizabeth I by becoming the English monarch.  James believed that the ruling monarch held a scared authority that was essential to maintain the order of the state and even the universe. The killing of the king, regicide, was the worst crime because it offended God and could not be justified.

 Elements that may seem unique to Macbeth such as its plot, structure, character, and theme reflects conventions and stories that Shakespeare shared with contemporary  dramatists, historians, critics, and their predecessors.  Shakespeare selection of events in the later part of the play, in which tyranny is manifested, permits Shakespeare to shape the play into a tragedy. In doing so, Shakespeare explores the psychology of power during Macbeth reign and political ramifications of his actions that lead to his demise.  The tragedy, therefore, serves as an important social function.  The effective use of imagery, symbolism and allegory, dramatic irony makes the reading of the play interesting.  Shakespeare combines imagery, symbolism and the use of blood and violence, which contributes to the understanding of the vicious nature of Macbeth.

They make the Macbeth a play of emotions, thoughts, and planning than of action.Throughout the play, Shakespeare uses imagery to create a vivid picture in the mind of the reader, which creative cover the horror and bloodshed in the play.   Shakespeare creates images that appeal very vivid to the senses, particularly to the sense of light. This enables us to imagine the metaphors very clearly, and understand the impact of images.  He also uses patterns of images linked to various themes, which help to clarify the themes for the audiences. Certain images are also linked to specific characters. The effective use of images that are interconnected makes the play unique.

One of the outstanding imagery is the image of light and darkness (Abhinandan, 2012).  Characters such as Duncan and Banquo are surrounded by daylight. Darkness form an all inclusive space where the reality dissolves and the protagonist start intermingling with his or her own identity and with other characters or events of the play at various levels.  In the play, darkness plays an important role in the developing conflict, progression of the action and the revelation of characters.  Shakespeare uses darkness to emphasize evil, wickedness, and negativity.

 At the beginning, Macbeth portrays darkness as a blanket to hide his evil and deadly deeds.  The three witches encountered on the way evoke darkness with thunder that gives the reader that something evil or frightening is going to take place.   In some instance in the play, Banquo defines the witches as an instrument of darkness due to their wickedness.  Macbeth also relies heavily on the darkness to murder the king.The blood imagery throughout the play creates the notion of inevitable guilt. It evokes the feeling of frustration, regrets, self-punishment and shame on the part of Macbeth.  In the play, blood symbolizes murder and guilt that characterize two of the main characters, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.

Blood plays a great role in revealing Macbeth’s feelings about murder.  For example, the blood symbolism exposes the trepidation of Macbeth before he kills Duncan (McKinlay Sheinber, 2008).  He hallucinate a dagger floating before him, directing him to Duncan’s room.   His brain is “heat-oppressed” or feverish about the murder that it creates a symbol of murder and the bloody dagger. After killing Duncan, Shakespeare uses blood to illustrate Macbeth horror and guilt of his heinous act of killing Duncan.  Macbeth laments, “What hands are here! Ha! They pluck mine eyes.” He laments that the sight of the blood “metaphorically” rips his eyes out.

 This indicates his magnitude of shock after killing Duncan. He is not only shocked but also feels extremely guilty.    The symbol of blood is also used after Macbeth kills Banquo.  After killing Banquo, the ghost of Banquo appears to accuse and haunt Macbeth. He protests “thou canst not say I did it. Never shake/Thy gory locks at me.” this indicates that the ghost of Banquo is bloody.  The appearance of Banquo reveals Macbeth guilt.   Shakespeare uses the same symbol of blood to indicate Macbeth acceptance of his guilt.  Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth, “I am in blood…..should I wade no more.” In this metaphor, Macbeth says he has waded so far in the pool of blood, and it was difficult for him to turn back.  The blood symbol is also used to show Lady Macbeth attitudes to murder.


Shakespeare use effectively symbolism, imagery and allegory to create the tragic picture of the play. The effective of light and darkness and blood symbols and image create scenery that is horrific and scary. This enables the play to emotional. The constant use of darkness reveals the wickedness of characters while blood is used to illustrate the bloody encounters, death, suffering and fights in the play. The use of these literary devices made the reading of the play interesting despite the ancient English used. In addition, the play is short compared to other famous plays of Shakespeare such as the Romeo and Juliet and the Merchant of Venice.


Abhinandan Malas (2012). The Darkness in William Shakespeare’s Play Macbeth: A Study. International Journal in English. Vol.III Issue III

McKinlay Sheinber (2008). William Shakespeare. Macbeth. Oxford University Press.  Oxford, UK.

FET Phase (2005). X-Kit Literature Series: FET Macbeth.  Maskew Miller Longman.  New York, USA. 


Friday, 30 May 2014 15:11

The Road not Taken-Robert Frost

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The Road not Taken-Robert Frost

Literary works are the results of a poet’s creative thinking and imaginations. Literary texts are written with the purposes of drawing a reader’s attention. Attention can be drawn using the styles that a writer uses structure of the literary work or the overall meaning of a literary text.  Writers produce literary text with a specific purpose, and in most instances these texts have a basic, as well as hidden meaning. This paper analyzes the poem the road not taken by Robert Frost. The poem is basically talking about two paths that the persona has encountered in a forest. Symbolically, the poem is about the tough life choices that a person has to make and how each choice influences a person’s life outcomes.


The literary text that captured my interest was the poem The Road not Taken by Robert Frost. The poem is captivating right from the topic as it is an indication that the poem is about making a major decision. The poem is about making a choice between available options. Ordinarily decision making based on several choices is not easy to make. This is because each of the choices has its pros and cons and whichever choice that a person makes will have consequences. The poem also captured my interest as it is symbolic of the daily life choices that a person can encounter in his life. The first line of the poem introduces readers to a life of choices. The line “two roads diverged in yellow wood” already puts readers in a choice situation (Frost, 1916).

There can only be two types of routes: the correct one and the wrong one. Overall, the poem discusses the issue of decision making and the ability of a person to live with their decisions.The formalist approach best describes Frost’s poem. The formalist approach investigates the ultimate effects that a literary work has on a reader. The formalist approach analyzes literature as a unique form of human intelligence that must be examined on its own terms. According to the formalist approach all elements needed to understand a literary text are within the literary text itself. In the poem “The path not taken”, Frosty integrates different elements that structure the poem.

The poem is mainly symbolic and presents a person who is in a dilemma with regard to the appropriate path to follow. The paths as presented in the poem do not represent physical roads, but life decisions as encountered in a person’s daily life. Frost also uses word pictures such as “two roads diverged in a wood…” (Frost, 1916))I used the one less travelled by…” word picture draw readers into the poem and makes him visualize the experience as told in the poem.From the formalist perspective, the poem “the path not taken” is a poem about life choices (Frost, 1916).

Every person lead their daily lives based on the life choices they make. The poem gives a message about life and indicates that life is about the choices we make. In most cases, it is impossible to revert on choices already made as these choices significantly impact a person’s life. The poem demonstrates that in life, there actually is no right path. Life is about choices made and each choice that a person makes has consequences. Each choice that a person makes brings with it new life twists and life changes. The main message of the poem is that man should strive to cease the moment with regard to life opportunities that present themselves.


The road not taken is a poem that symbolizes the twists of life and the face of tough choices in life. The poem utilizes symbolism where the paths in the forest represent the decisions that a person can face in the course of their lives. Imagers and alliteration have also been used.


Frost, R. (1916). The road not taken. Mountain Interval

Frost (2010). The road not taken, birches and other poems. Coyote Canyon press


Friday, 30 May 2014 11:40

“The Secret in their Eyes.”

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The Secret in their Eyes.”    

The appeal of “The secret In Their Eyes” is in its lithe and mysterious quality.  The movie resembles a derivative of cop caper, with Benjamin Esposito reminiscing about his mid-1970s partnership with Pablo Sandoval in battling the corrupt ineptness of the Buenos Aires  just system bureaucracy before the Argentina descends into dictatorship.  The movie deploy cheap and cheerful brashness shades and strategic cinematic codes that mimic the mass media infiltration of experience, cultural colonialism and the contemporaneous US influence of the Latin America during this time.  The director combines elements of crime procedurals, romance and political thriller which were cross-fertilized into what was planned as an idealistic meditation on love and abhorrence, loss, guiltiness and regret.  The movie revisits the violence of argentine past during the junta rule.  

 Historical event influence on the film

The story of the El Secreto is narrated in the early 2000s, but the numerous flashbacks to the 1970s, as the central character, Benjamin Esposito, revisits an old murder case that he had closed in order to write a novel about it.  The context of the murder, which was committed in 1974, is an indication of the political environment in argentine during the era of Aires.  The content of the crime (rape and slaughter) indicates the atrocities committed during Argentina’s darkest moments.   The culture of drinking as influenced by the American culture is depicted by the drunken of Benjamin. The acquittal of the former convict on the case of rape and murder represent innocence in the wake of the brutality and conflict. His conviction was a clear representation of corruption and injustices.

 The colonel’s junta coupled by the disappearance of thousands of people after the peronist government’s chaotic degeneration emphasizes the desperate situation which was in the context of a human story (Tom Jenning, 2010). This story is expected to carry more weight than the historical specialties.  However, the story begins before the excesses of the worst fascist when the existing modes of repression increasingly become organized and institutionalized while must human right advocates and society remained quiet to avoid confrontation.

During this period, the middle-class and lower-class did not have protection.  Characters such as Gomez, Morales and Liliana, did not have protection against brutalities of Colonel Junta, their rich families and other elite sponsors.  The ease with which Benjamin got out of jail and his consequent relationship with Irene represents the social democracy’s uneasy coalition of different classes and professions.  In addition, the liberal pretensions failed to secure meaningful justice. The main protagonists’ shambolic careers and their private lives are mere wastage of time. The historical circumstances of the movie reveal a different story.  The flashbacks of the film reveal a brave new world for Argentina of affectionate national partnership.  It reveals a country that has settled from the dark days of dirty wars.


The movie depicts the social crisis reflected in the massive industrial and political unrest across Latin America in 1970s, conflicting class interests as depicted by various characters.  The movie gives a serious message on the transcendence of communal trauma, which was experienced during this time of history. The movie borrows influence from the American culture such the crime investigation procedures depicted in American movies and the social structure of the American people. This indicates the influence of America not only on the film industry, but also in the social, economic and political structure of Latin America countries during the time.


Tom Jenning (2010). A Brief Encounter with History. Film review. Vol. 71, No. 19, October 2010.

Losada, M. (2010). “The Secret in Their Eyes” Historical Memory. Cineaste, Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, 2010.


Saturday, 24 May 2014 12:47

Ethical Dilemma

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Ethical Dilemma

An ethical dilemma is a conflicting situation that involves making a decision between two moral actions. The conflict manifests itself in that adhering to one action automatically violates the other action and vice versa. An ethical dilemma leaves a person with the problem of having to make a decision that shows moral character especially when faced with a complex situation. Ethical dilemmas are further complicated by the fact that they are unpredictable and unforeseeable hence not possible to prevent the situation before it occurs. Health care professionals such as nurses are often faced with ethical dilemmas, on a regular basis, due to the nature of their profession (Basavanthappa, 2003).

Ethical dilemmas demonstrate various characteristics. The first is that there is no right and wrong in ethical dilemmas. Actions are based on a moral decision. Consequences of ethical dilemmas also bear significant consequences on a person and society as a whole thus the need to keep the needs and safety of affected persons first. Ethical dilemmas also leave a person with the task of making a choice between two undesirable alternatives that offer different courses of action.Ethical dilemmas differ from other situations especially when these situations could lead to harm.

For instance some people may refuse modern medication due to their beliefs in traditional medicine or due to influences from their religious beliefs. Such a situation leaves a healthcare professional in a dilemma as upholding the patient’s autonomy might results to the patient’s death. The issues of confidentiality also leave nurses in a dilemma especially if they desire to enquire for assistance from peers and colleagues (Basavanthappa, 2003).  A patient’s right to privacy cannot always be upheld in health situations that jeopardize others. For instance, a contagious disease must be reported so as to avoid further spread.


Basavanthappa, B. (2003). Nursing administration. Jaypee Brothers Publishers


Saturday, 24 May 2014 05:46


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This section outlines the history of postwar literature highlighting some of the most popular writings and authors. The period immediately after the end of the war to until 1960s saw the publication of the most popular literature work in the history of the American literature.It also contains the thesis of the research, which seeks to investigate the common themes and techniques in post-World War II fictions and poetry. Some unifying features of the literature coincide with Jean-François concept of the “meta-narrative” and “little narrative.” They also portray elements of Jacques Deridda’s concept of “play,” and Baudrillard’s “simulacra.” The tension, horror and purposelessness of the contemporary American life dominated the novelist themes of the 1960s and 70s.

 Common techniques and themes

This section explores some of the common themes and techniques in post world war II literature including poetry and fiction. Some of the common themes include the use of irony, black humor and playfulness, intertextuality and pastiche.


This section highlights some of the key areas that have been explored by the paper.  The World War II influenced various elements of literature. The period was characterized with the emergence of great writers who focused on subjectivism, and used various techniques. Most postwar literary work share common themes and techniques.


            The World War II and the Vietnam War left distinctive marks on the American history.   The period immediately after the end of the war to until 1960s saw the publication of the most popular literature work in the history of the American literature.  The period was dominated by the realistic modernist and the Romantic Beatniks. The American participation in the war influenced the post-war literature.  Some of the most renowned novelist such as Saul Bellow, who was born in Canada, became some of the most influential novelist in the United States.  Bellow popular works such as “The adventures of Augie March” and “Henderson the rain king,” made him a Nobel literature award winner in 1976. After the World War II, returning soldiers were disillusioned to the degree that the veterans of World War I had been, perhaps because the world had grown used to carnage on the grand scale and perhaps because the cause for which nations fought World War I seemed nobler.

 The post-war era resulted into the rise of the postmodern literature and a reaction against the “enlightment” ideas implicit in modernist literature.  It is complicated to define postmodern literature, and there is little agreement on the exact characteristics, scope and importance of postmodern literature.  The modern and postmodern literature presents a break from the 19th century realism, in which narratives were told from an object or omniscient point of view.  The postmodern and modern literature explores subjectivism in case of character development.  Some of the unifying features of the literature coincide with Jean-François concept of the “meat-narrative” and “little narrative.” They also portray elements of Jacques Deridda’s concept of “play,” and Baudrillard’s “simulacra.”

The tension, horror and purposelessness of the contemporary American life dominated the novelist themes of the 1960s and 70s. Authors such as Bellow, Malamud, and Calisher and concentrated on urban intellectuals while authors such as Updike, Cheever treated the middle class, who were largely Protestants. The conflict and violent inherent in post-war America was addressed by writers such William Borroughs, Oates and Raymond Carver.In the post-war period, the perceived need for a national identity promoted the call for a national literature, one that would capture and express distinctively “American” characteristics. Although such calls had been voiced earlier, they were vigorously renewed, and as prose fiction came more and more to dominate the literary scene, the call was especially for the “great American Novel.”

Much of the post-war fiction, including that of William Dean and Henry James, were affected by, and often a conscious response to such expectations.  Authors such as Roth, Heller, and Jules Feiffer used irony and the so call “black humor.” Writers such as Donald Barthelme, Kurt Vonnegut and Jerzy Koinski, expressed their views of the world as unreal and mad by writing fantasies that were charming, obscure, exciting and terrifying.  Most of these writers have been classified as postmodern, but the term postmodern encompasses numerous characteristics such as multiculturalism, self-reflection and new means of communication. Poets such as Allen Ginsberg and Gregory Corso established themselves as renowned poet after the beat.

 The poetry and fiction of the “Beat Generation”, which was largely born of a circle of intellects in New York, came of age immediately post-war.  The term “beat” is used to refer to the countercultural rhythm of the jazz scene. It was regarded as a rebellion against conservative stress of post-war society. Writers of “perceptual verse” such as the great Charles Olson, Denise Lervetove and Robert Cheeley were widely recognized during the 1960s. Robert Lowell was one of the most provocative and active poets of the decade. He was popular for work that focused on anguish and corruption, vices that were popular during the decade.  His practice of revelation about his life eventually evolved into what was commonly known as “the confessional” poetry, which was later popularized by poets such as Anne sexton, John Berryman and Sylvia Plath.  

James Dickey and Elizabeth Bishop emerged as some of the advocates of idiosyncratic styles.  To some extent, poetry was popularized along ideological lines as seen in the work of feminist poets such as Adrienne Rich.  The concern of the generation was expressed by poets such as James Merrill.  Many writers of the 1960s were intrigued by the pressure and fascination of events of the decade. Writers such as the Truman Capote and James Michener wrote with perception about the politics of the time, murders, demonstrations, and economic challenges facing the society.  Post-Vietnam literature brought to light many realities and assumptions that went unchallenged.

 Consequently, novelists such as Don DeLillo, Richard Ford, and Robert Stone explored various prose styles and explored a wide variety of experiences and attitudes in the contemporary American society.  The literature of the 1980s and 190s saw an influx of many African-American writers such as the noble winner Toni Morrison and Alice Walker, Latino writers such as  Rudolfo Anaya and Oscar Hijuelos, native-America writers such as Louise Erdrich and Asian-American such as Maxine Hong (Schaub, 79).  One of the most popular post-war novel “The naked and the Dead” by Norman Mailer provides a narrow and terrifying view of the war, focusing on the lives of a small group of men fighting in the south pacific. The novel explores the experience the terrific experience and dehumanizing situation.

 Common techniques and themes in post-war literature

Some of the common themes and techniques evident in postmodern literature include:

Iron, playfulness and black humor

Iron, playfulness and black humor, are the trademark of postwar literature.  Postwar writers choose critical and serious issues such as wars and depict their stories ironically and humorously.    According to Linda Hutcheon, postwar fiction is characterized by the ironic quotes marks that much of these literatures can be taken as tongue-in-cheek.   Iron, playfulness and black humor, which are related to Derrida’s concept of play, are some of the outstanding aspects of postwar fiction.   However, the idea of using Iron, playfulness and black humor did not start with postmodern writers and had been in existence for decades.  The use of these elements made novelists such as John Barth, William Gaddis and Jay Friedman to be regarded as black humorists.

  Most postwar/postmodern writers treat serious issues and subjects in playful and humorous way.   A good example is how Vonnegut and Pynchon address world war issues.    In “The school”, Donald Barthelme uses irony and black humor.   Donald humorous talk about the ironic death of plants, animals, and people associated with children in one class, but the curious repetition of death is treated as a joke and the narrator remains distant emotionally throughout the narrative.  Irony is also central to Joseph Heller’s catch-22. The narrative of the novel is structured around long series of humor.  Exemplary example of playfulness is found in Thomas Pynchon’s “The crying of lot 49.”  The novel contain characters such Mike Fallopian, and Stanley, a radio station known as KCUF while the novel has a serious subject and a complex structure .The element of irony is closely related to metafiction.

 Metafiction is a phenomenon that seems to occur in particular with post-war literature.  In fact, metafiction is closely connected with ways of thinking typically of that time, generally called the post-modernist period, where “doubt” and “irony” are central ideas.  Furthermore, self-preferentiality is the most common form of metafiction, particularly frequent in romantic irony.  Romantic irony is the metafiction in that it explicitly draws attention to the artificiality of novel. Romantic writers and theorists, of whom German Friedrich is the most prominent, use irony to undermine the neo-classical belief that words can grasp everything and that reality so becomes fully reproducible for human beings. There is an increased interest in metafiction after the second war (Gesa 201).  


            Intertextuality is a concept often associated with postmodernism, particularly the sphere of modernism where literature meets critical theory.  Postmodernism represents a decenter concept of the globe in which individual works are interrelated; Intertextuality has been accorded a lot of focus in postmodern literature.  Intertextuality is the relationship between one text, for example, a novel, and another or one text within the interwoven fabric of literary history.  Various critics have used this concept as an indication of lack of creativity in post-war literature.

By the mid-to-late 1960s, the stage had long been set for a theory of intertextuality. On the side of Atlantic, Northrop Frye’s Anatomy of criticism (1957), assumed what would come to be known as intertextuality principles. It presents, in part, a conception of literature as containing life and reality in a system of verbal relationships. It subsumes the work of the “major” authors with that of ‘minor” figures in a multiply positional typology based on relation and differences.  Intertextuality manifests in fairy tales. The works of Margret Atwood and Donald Barthelme are a good example of how Intersexuality is used in postmodern literature.  It is also evident in other genres such as detective fiction and sci-fi.   

Pierre Menard is an example of perfect use of intertextuality, which influenced postmodern writers. His work “Quixote” references intertextuality in medieval romances.  Don Quixote is referred by numerous post-war writers such as Kathy Acker in her novel Don Quixote, which was a dream.  Another classic example of intertextuality in post-war literature is John Barth’s “The sot-weed Factor,” which deals with Ebenezer’s Cooke’s poem of the same name.  In most cases, intertextuality is complicated that the reference of one text to another text.  Robert Coover’s in his novel “Pinicchio in Venice” links to Thomas Mann’s “Death in Venice.” Similarly, Umberto Eco’s “The Name of the Rose” assumes the structure of a detective novel and refers to numerous authors such as Aristotle (Gupta 154).   


            Pastiche is another common characteristic in post-war literature. The concept is closely related to intertextuality. The term means to combine or to “paste” together, multiple elements in a literature work.  In postwar literature, pastiche is a homage to or parody of past styles.  It represents the chaotic, pluralistic, or information drenched concept of the modern society.  Often it is seen as a combination of multiple genres to create a unique novel or narrative or to comment on situations in post-war.  A good example is seen in Williams Burroughs novel, which combines science fiction and detective fiction. Similarly, Margaret Atwood combines science fiction and fairy tales.

Umberto Ecos utilizes a combination of fairy tales, detective fiction and science fiction while Derek Pell uses collage and noir detective, travel guides, erotica and manuals (Lauter 215).  Pastiche involves a combination of genres. However, it can involve a combination of other elements such as metafiction and temporal distortion. This is evident in Thomas Pynchon work, which combines detective fiction, songs, pop culture reference and war fiction.  Another classical example of element combination is seen in Robert Cover’s 1977 novel “The Public burning.” In the novel, Robert combines historically inaccurate accords of President Richard Nixon interaction with historical figures and fictional characters such as Uncle Sam. Pastiche can also be considered as a compositional technique. This is clearly demonstrated in Johnson’s novel “The Unfortunates.” The book was released in a box without binding so that readers could assemble it the way they want.  


            The World War II influenced various elements of literature. The period was characterized with the emergence of great writers who focused on subjectivism, and used various techniques. Most postwar literary work share common themes and techniques. Novelists explored various prose styles and explored a wide variety of experiences and attitudes in the contemporary American society. Postwar writers choose critical and serious issues such as wars and depict their stories ironically and humorously. In postwar literature, pastiche is a homage to or parody of past styles.  It represents the chaotic, pluralistic, or information drenched concept of the modern society

 Work cited

American literature. The lost generation and after.  The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press. 2012.

Gupta Satish. American fiction in perspective. Contemporary essays.  Atlantic Publishers and distributors.  New Delhi. 2000.

Paul Lauter. The heath anthology of American literature, Volume C: Late Nineteenth Century.  Cengage Learning. 2010; 213-215.  Print

Schaub H. American fiction in the cold war. The University of Wisconsin Press.  1991, 79. Print

Erick V & Karen M. Contemporary American literature, 1945 to present.  DWJ books LLC. 2010; 154.

Gesa Giesing. Metafiction Aspects in the novel by Muriel Spark. 


 The Character Of Emily In “A Rose For Emily” By William Faulkner.

 A Rose for Emily was the first Faulkner’s short story to be   published in a nationally recognized magazine. It appeared in the April issue of the Forum, in 1930.  The story is built around Miss Emily Grierson, an elderly woman who lived the last 10 years of her life as a recluse. The story is told from a first person plural point and indication that the narrator is speaking from the collective perspective of the town. The story opens with Miss Emily funeral which is attended by the entire village.

The description of the funeral reveals the curiosity of the community to know the life of Miss Emily who had lived a mysterious life. As the narrator put it “the men through the sort of respectful fondness for a fallen headstone, the women typically out of curiosity to see the inside of her house, as though seeing it they would bring light a hidden secret of her personality.” True to their suspicion, the dead, decayed Skelton of a construction man, believed to be his lover, is found in her secret room. Through the story, the narrator gives a lot of information about the personal life of Miss Emily which reveals the mental health of her family, her restrictive father, the stench that came from the house years ago and her romance with the construction Yankee (Homer Baron), who she later killed.

 Miss Emily

The story reveals Miss Emily as a subject of sexual repression and stultifying gender roles. Emily is driven to insanity and murder by her family and social dynamics. The narration the story leaves many questions than answers on the character of Emily. The audience is left to wonder is she a widow who devours her unsuspecting lover, a desperate spinster who kills to possess, is she some denied natural outlets for her emotions or is she a victim of time, community, her father or her own repressed sexuality. The revelation of the character and life of Miss Emily makes the short story a horror and an allegory at the same time.The family of Grierson had a streak of general insanity and pride.

 Emily’s father was a selfish and dominating man who believed that there was no single man who was worth courting her daughter Emily.  Therefore, he discouraged all Emily’s suitors and drove them away leaving Emily alone and desperate.  By the time he died, Emily was still unmarried, lonely and in need of affection (Fargnoli N & Golay M, 2008).  As the narrator depicts it, the community was somehow happy that the death of Emily’s father had set her free.  However, Emily was hesitant in burying her father. This act is somehow symbolic of Emily’s and society hesitance to leave the past and embrace modernity and the extent to which the influence of the repressive father had affected Emily’s life. Her strong affection for the construction Yankee can be linked to her obsession to the father figure and the domineering characteristics of her father.

 The strong masculine nature and whip-welding skills of Homer are a resemblance of the iron-hand of her father. Therefore, by killing Homer, it can be said that Emily was holding back the repressive characteristics of her father and maintaining status quo. The act also marked the transformation of Emily from a slender, virtuous, virgin girl to a pale suffering woman. The description of Homer represents the new-born culture and class which was more adventurous and lacking in morals (Terry Heller, 1972). Homer had the typical characteristics of the industrial time that represented the bourgeois morals, which could not be compatible with Emily’s old morals.

 Therefore, their relationship represented a class and their differences were not concealable.  After killing Homer, Emily’s picture framed in her upstairs window becomes an inversion of her beautiful and youthful portrait. “The window that and been dark was lightened, Emily sat in it, the light at the back her.’ Emily became the dark silhouette in the dominant foreground.  Since the nightshirts were white, Homer, wearing his nightshirt, was an inversion of the pure virginity to a decaying corpses hovering in the background.  The description of Emily hair by the community illustrates her guilty of killing Homer and the suffering rapidly transformed her.

She is depicted as a woman who throughout her life has been cared for by her father who by no means gave her the autonomy to become her own person. He is a prevailing patriarch who robbed Emily part of her female reality that can only be satisfied through marriage. Emily became used to such kind of life and greatly dependent of her father’s spirituality.  Therefore, when her father passed on, she was incapable of surviving, courteously on her own. She resulted into a life of seclusion refusing to adapt to the changing environment around her.  Despite his demise, Emily’s father continued to be significant in her life. The portrait of her father is mentioned often in the story symbolizing his continued presence in her life.Her repressed adult life did not leave room for her to grow and blossom like a rose (Qun, 2007). She lived a pale and shade-less life.

As the narrator put it “ a thin, acrid pall as of the tomb seemed to lie everywhere upon this room decked and furnished as for a bridal: upon the valance curtains of faded rose color, upon the rose-shaded lights……” As a result of this faded life, she was blind of the changing environment around her (Volpe L, 2004).The relationship between Emily and her family and the entire community also influenced the character of Emily.   The events at her funeral reveal important clues and attitudes of the community toward Emily’s family. Community members did not come to the funeral to mourn or grief the passing of one of their beloved member of the community.

They are driven by curiosity and respect for the defunct institution. Despite their curiosity, it is evident that the community respected her as a pillar of the community, and there is no evidence that they hated or disgusted her. The description of her house depicts defiance to change. It is “stubborn and coquettish.” It is surrounded by commercial quarters, and it is a victim of time. People regard it because of the nostalgic feeling it gives.  According to Anderson (2007), Miss Emily is a symbol of death-in-life and thus the South’s refusal to let die the myth of the Lost Cause. Looking in the old age “like a body long submerged in motionless water,” Miss Emily is a veritable monument to the Old South. 

  Her house’s “stubborn and coquettish decay” serves as a reminder of a way of life that is dead but unburied. When her father dies, she at first denies it, a presage of her later inability to let Homer Barron, even after his death.In conclusion, despite the groom picture of Miss Emily created by her killing of Homer Barron, she is also a victim of repressed sexuality, male dominance and a representative of the conflict between the past and present. She is held up by past morals, which imprison her to act in unreasonable ways.


Anderson D.J (2007). Student companion to William Faulkner. Greenwood Publishing group. New York, USA.

Fargnoli N & Golay M (2008). Critical companion to William Faulkner. Infobase Publishing. New York, USA.

Terry Heller (1972). The Telltale Hair: A Critical Study of William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved from http://www.public.coe.edu/ on 11/30/2013.

Volpe L (2004). A reader’s guide to William Faulkner: The short stories. Syracuse University Press. New York, USA.

Xie Qun (2007). Analysis of the changing portrait  in “Arose for Emily.” Canadian Social Science. Vol. 3 issue 2; pg 11


Friday, 23 May 2014 12:31

Eng Literature

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Eng Literature

 Booker t. Washington and W Du Bois

The philosophical difference between Du Bois and Washington Booker has deep historical backgrounds. They are individuals in the same side in fighting for the progress, uplifting, and purpose of uplifting the black race. However, these two Black intellectuals had radically divergent views on the means of assisting the African Americans from the bondage of living subhuman conditions. They were both aware of the importance of technological advancement in enhancing African Americans. Their work The Souls of Black Folks by Du Bois (1903) and Up from Slavery by Washington (1901) are considered as he classical commentaries based on the authors efforts in addressing the problem on ‘Negro” in America.There were other Black Americans making efforts of mitigating illiteracy, poverty, high rates of mortality, racial discrimination and other forms of desolate conditions plaguing the African Americans at the turn of the century.

However, both Du Bois and Washington had their unique influential appeal in some constituencies. They paid close attention to the various American intelligence segments originating from the European ethnic background. For Washington, he acknowledged the power structure of the white as the main platform in promoting their message. He viewed that solution for the Black race problem was to become superior laborers and be reliable. This way they would make themselves contributors of the country’s economy for their own good. The black people were, therefore, to be educated with the best education that is of economic benefit. Washington proposed that industrial education was the best education that would help the social improvement of Black people (Spivey, 1978).

 Du Bois agreed with Washington that the Black race progress has to occur, but he believed that this progress can best be attained through the trickled down means. His primary focus was on how the professional class skills can be of help to the Black people so as to achieve the desired goal. H saw the issue of class as the defining factor of the black Americans and White European.Their different views originate from their influence in their earlier years before 19000s towards the White elite. This influence was much stronger on Washington than Du Bois. Washington advocated for hand-on external means while Du Bois advocated for a paternalistic means of the Black race advancement. From their views, we wonder if the integration of these two approaches would be the best means of improving the black race condition. Their philosophies are still being applied and urged in today’s technological arena.


Du Bois, W (1903) The souls of Black folks. Chicago: McClurg

Spivey, D (1978) Schooling for the new slavery: Black industrial education, 1868-1915.

Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Washington, B (1901) Up from slavery. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company

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