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Tuesday, 10 December 2013 14:24

Annotated Bibliography Featured

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Annotated Bibliography


Zoeller, R. (2008). Lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women: Is physical activity an equal opportunity benefactor? American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 2(3), 219-226.

The study conducted was based on the cardiovascular disease which is estimated to be the highest disease killer of women in the United States. The study estimated that about 36.6 % of women who are older than 20 years have certain infections that are related to cardiovascular disease. The study concluded that regular activities of physical moderate intensity like brisk walking pose a great threat in women simply because it reduces the risk of women being affected by mortality in women and cardiovascular disease condition. It concludes that there is a pressing need in the research so as to study the healthcare benefits of regular physical activity in women. Limitations of this study are that it lacks clear vigorous exercise. It also lacks the dose response relationship relevant for cardiovascular and exercise intensity which may be the result which develops interventional and epidemiologic studies. There was limited evidence in that study that proved and suggests the presence of moderate intensity activities which are responsible in lowering the systolic blood pressure in women.


Li, T., Rana, J., Manson, J., Willett, W., Stampfer, M., Colditz, G., & ... Hu, F. (2006). Obesity    as compared with physical activity in predicting risk of coronary heart disease in women.       Circulation, 113(4), 499-506.

This study compares the obesity and physical inactivity as predictors of (CHD) coronary heart disease risk which is believed to remain unsettled. It aimed at comparing the relevance in this case where a group of more than 88000 women between the age of 30 and 60 years of age. The study reveals that women in this study did not have cancer and cardiovascular disease at the baseline. The study concludes that physical inactivity and obesity independently plays a role in the development of CHD in women who are in the gap of 30 years and 60 years. The limitation of the study is that the data collected underscored the relevance of regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight in preventing CHD.


Carnethon, M. (2009). Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease: How Much is Enough?.       American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1 Suppl), 44S-49S

The study reviews the role played by physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. This connects to the particular attention that is focused by the amount of physical activity and intensity required to develop women health. The study indicates the inverse linear dose response that relates to the amount of physical activity and mortality, CAD incidence, total CV disease, and cause mortality. The study concludes that moderate activity that relates to brisk walking just for 30 minutes to 1 hour is related with certain significant reductions in mortality and incidence of CV disease. The limitation of the study is the minimal effective dose which is unclear during the study. It is also clear that the physical activity needed does not come out clear because it should not be vigorous to benefit health as portrayed during the study.


Bassuk, S., & Manson, J. (2010). Physical activity and cardiovascular disease prevention in  women: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Nutrition, Metabolism, And Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD, 20(6), 467-473

This study is focused about epidemiological studies, which argue that, as little as half an hour of moderate intensity physical activity in a given day can develop some signs that lower the risk of developing conditions of cardiovascular disease in women. The study concludes that sedentary individuals who in some instance develop signs of physically active even to those who are older ages derive cardiovascular benefits. It is clear that physical activity occurs to slow the progression and initiation of CVD through salutary effects. The study concludes that public health initiatives that promote moderate increase in physical activity that may balance between feasibility and efficacy so as to improve cardiovascular health in sedentary populations. Limitations of this study are that salutary effects are not effective due to the adiposity and also on lipids, blood pressure, glycemic control, inflammatory defense systems, and insulin sensitivity.


Lee, I., Rexrode, K., Cook, N., Manson, J., & Buring, J. (2001). "Physical activity and coronary   heart disease in women: is "no pain, no gain" passé?." JAMA: The Journal Of The    American Medical Association 285, no. 11: 1447-1454

The study focuses on the physical activity and coronary heart disease present in women. It looks at the physical activeness in women that are believed to lower the coronary heart disease (CHD) rates as compared to the inactive women for that case. In this study, the authors have decided to examine the relation that exists between CHD among women, specifically investigating walking, and physical activity including those at high risk for CHD. The study concludes that the date used indicate that even light to moderate activity is slightly associated with lower CHD rates in women. It is true that at least 60 minutes of walking per week predict lower risk. The study also indicated that the inverse association with physical activity is present in women at high risk at CHD for those overweight women. Limitation of the study is that it did not include a good sample in conducting its study.


Brown, W., Burton, N., & Rowan, P. (2007). Updating the evidence on physical activity and       health in women. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 404-411.

The narrative is a composition of review updates evidence from the last 10 years on physical activity that contributes to the study of prevention of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular in women. It is a study that coherently developed and included a number of published studies from 1997 to 2006. The study concluded that there is strong evidence that exist in the physical activity simply because it plays a role in the primary prevention of cancer, some diabetes, and cardiovascular conditions in women. Limitations of the study are that it did not have the additional health benefits developed from vigorous intensity physical activity that could have been achieved from the moderate intensity physical activity or walking conditions.


Mendis, S., Puska, P., & Norrving, B. (2011). Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease       Prevention and Control. Stylus Pub Llc

The study indicates that individuals and government in the society has a role in the reduction of the socioeconomic and health burden that is caused by cardiovascular disease. These groups can take the action of curbing the aspect of CVD risk in women and at the end they will have saved a lot of things. It concludes that cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains of the biggest cause of deaths in the world for women. It indicates that around 17 million people in 2008 died from CVD where 82 percent of people who died occurred from middle and low-income settings. The limitation of the study in this case is based on the fact that it did not provide a baseline for monitoring of trends and at the same time assessing progress developed by countries affected by the cardiovascular situation.


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