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Friday, 23 May 2014 12:21

Environmental Factors Featured

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  Environmental Factors


 Many environmental exposures are responsible of cancer development in addition to smoking. Unlike smoking, there are many environmental factors which can be avoided if humans were aware of their existence. More than 55 percent of American’s cancer deaths are as a result of environmental factors such as diet and smoking. It has been difficult to estimate or examine the role played by environmental contaminants simply because lifestyle, genetics, and environmental exposures are responsible for cancer development. Evidence shows that environmental factors play a major role in the development of different types of cancer that affects humans. This paper will examine the role environmental factors play towards development or causation of cancer disease in the society.


 Discussion

Environmental factors as causes of cancer in the society are often misunderstood and complex topic. The term environment itself has a good number of meanings when it refers to causation of cancer. In the past, environmental causes of cancer referred to any other cancer apart from those which were caused by inherited or hereditary factors. According to the current studies, environmental factors that cause cancer include all cancer related factors which are caused by certain practices such as lifestyle. These practices include viruses, use of tobacco, diet, and many others. Environmental factors that contribute to cancer development comprise of external environmental factors, as well as personal environmental factors (Sfanos & De Marzo, 2012).Many environmental epidemiologists who have been engaged in cancer research activities have concluded that environmental factors have a major role in the causation of cancer in the society. The current individual’s exposure to environmental pollutants poses a great risk in cancer development.


Researchers say that there is a good number of deaths that are caused by cancer that results from environmental factors. According to American cancer society, cancer has been ranked as the second leading killer in US and the leading cause of death in the world. Every year, it is estimated that around 1.5 million new cases of cancer are recorded in US and more that 600,000 people die from cancer disease. Experts who have done extensive research on the role environmental factors play in causation of cancer; they have agreed that most cancers cases are caused by personal environmental factors. Personal lifestyle such as alcohol, diet, and smoking in the current society has a great impact in the development of cancer cases. It has been discovered that smoking alone contributes around 30 percent of all American cancer related deaths.


Physical inactivity, obesity, and diet according to the American cancer society contribute another one-third of cancer deaths, (Boffetta, 2006).Different environmental factors are linked to different kinds of cancer. This is a clear indication that environmental factors have a role to play in the causation of cancer in the society. Lifestyle factors such as excessive weight, exercise, and diet, are believed by experts to play a role in the development of certain types of cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. Study shows that an infection with something like Helicobacter Pylori bacterium is a relevant environmental risk factor for causation of stomach cancer. There is a recent rapid rise in the risk factor for stomach cancer in most parts of the world. Study shows that stomach cancer and colorectal cancer are as a result of environmental causes that are related or linked to lifestyle factors.


Smoking is linked to a number of cancers such as throat cancer, kidney, pancreas, cervix, stomach, voice box, colon, mouth, bladder, and the lung cancer among others. Experts have found that exposure to asbestos caused lung cancer while the exposure to Benzedrine a certain chemical, which is found in dyes, is linked to bladder cancer, (Vera-Ramirez at al., 2013).Unlike other causes of cancer in the society, it has been discovered that environmental factors play a major role in causation of cancer. The reason behind this is due to the fact that environmental factors are freely exposed to human life, and they can easily affect someone without knowledge. Another thing is that there is a high probability of someone to get more than one types of cancers simply because there is a risk of more than one factor affecting someone. Physiological stress according to research indicates that human immune system is being affected something that results to the occurrence of certain types of cancer, (Miceli, 2005).


 Conclusion

In summing up, it has been established that cancer is the second killer in US and the leading killer in the world. Study shows that environmental factors play a significant role in the development of cancer related cases. Unlike other causes of cancer in the society, it has been discovered that environmental factors play a major role in causation of cancer. More than 55 percent of American’s cancer deaths are as a result of environmental factors such as diet and smoking.


 Reference:

Boffetta, P. (2006). Human cancer from environmental pollutants: The epidemiological evidence. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology & Environmental Mutagenesis608(2), 157-162. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.02.015

Miceli, D. L. (2005). Seeking the Truth about the Environment and Your Health: Separating Truth from Fiction. AMWA Journal: American Medical Writers Association Journal20(4), 163-164

Sfanos, K., & De Marzo, A. (2012). Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence. Histopathology60(1), 199-215. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.04033.x

Vera-Ramirez, L., Ramirez-Tortosa, M., Sanchez-Rovira, P., Ramirez-Tortosa, C. L., Granados-Principal, S., Lorente, J. A., & Quiles, J. L. (2013). Impact of Diet on Breast Cancer Risk: A Review of Experimental and Observational Studies. Critical Reviews In Food Science & Nutrition53(1), 49-75. doi:10.1080/10408398.2010.521600


 

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